Key message
Neutral

Slovenia is a net importer of food, as domestic production does not satisfy the total needs (especially for cereals, potatoes, vegetables, fruit, pig meat, and honey). The long-term trend indicates that the self-sufficiency rate is higher and more stable for most animal products (milk, eggs, beef and poultry meat), with the exception of pig meat and honey, where the self-sufficiency rate is noticeably decreasing. In the analysed period, surpluses occurred only in the domestic production of milk, beef, poultry meat, in some years in eggs and honey, and in recent years in the production of grain maize. Meanwhile, the self-sufficiency in crops is generally lower (potatoes, vegetables, fruit) and varies from year to year (influence of harvests). In the long term, only the self-sufficiency rate for cereals is increasing, including barley, rye and grain maize, while the self-sufficiency rate for wheat shows a slightly downward trend.


The self-sufficiency rate is defined as the extent to which a country’s domestic production is able to meet the total domestic demand (including food, feed, and industrial consumption). A self-sufficiency rate of less than 100% means a deficit that must be covered by imports, and a self-sufficiency rate of more than 100% means a surplus in domestic supply.

The indicator shows the level of self-sufficiency for the following agricultural products in Slovenia: meat, by main types and total, eggs, potatoes, cereals, by main types and total, vegetables, fruit, milk, and honey. Self-sufficiency rates are shown only at the level of individual agricultural products, but not at the aggregated food level. Per capita consumption of agricultural products and a comparison of self-sufficiency rates for cereals between Slovenia and some countries are also presented.


Charts

Figure KM29-1: Self-sufficiency rate of agricultural products in Slovenia, 2000–2021
Sources:

SORS, 2022; calculations by AIS

Note:

*Preliminary data.

Show data
Meat, total[%] Eggs[%] Cereals[%] Potatoes[%] Vegetables[%] Fruit[%] Milk, total[%] Honey[%]
2000 92 95 48 83 47 66 113 112
2001 100 98 46 79 39 55 117 105
2002 97 97 63 85 42 59 115 105
2003 97 104 38 64 37 56 116 97
2004 92 103 63 86 43 58 114 102
2005 88 94 60 74 45 49 113 75
2006 88 97 50 60 39 52 120 81
2007 93 95 54 70 34 49 120 78
2008 91 95 64 57 36 38 115 81
2009 83 93 57 63 37 38 114 85
2010 84 93 57 63 30 47 116 74
2011 85 96 71 63 37 46 120 85
2012 83 92 70 55 34 37 117 51
2013 82 91 55 46 33 43 118 82
2014 80 90 77 67 38 42 120 20
2015 74 93 72 59 40 47 125 71
2016 76 95 74 55 42 32 132 59
2017 81 90 63 50 38 15 134 45
2018 81 96 69 48 41 47 129 79
2019 81 95 75 47 43 30 127 44
2020 84 95 88 60 48 36 133 67
2021* 85 97 85 44 44 14 136 15
Figure KM29-2: Self-sufficiency rate of cereals in Slovenia, 2000–2021
Sources:

SORS, 2022; calculations by AIS

Note:

*Preliminary data.

Show data
Wheat[%] Barley[%] Rye[%] Maize[%]
2000 63 30 7 48
2001 58 33 18 45
2002 63 34 17 75
2003 47 24 21 38
2004 54 45 42 77
2005 48 51 36 72
2006 44 45 17 57
2007 47 53 22 58
2008 55 57 19 72
2009 48 53 22 63
2010 49 54 31 61
2011 55 68 43 82
2012 65 81 50 72
2013 47 62 75 58
2014 59 72 73 91
2015 52 73 61 87
2016 52 74 47 92
2017 46 74 61 72
2018 41 68 60 89
2019 47 74 83 96
2020 57 82 77 114
2021* 58 74 57 111
Figure KM29-3: Self-sufficiency rate of meat in Slovenia, 2000–2021
Sources:

SORS, 2022; calculations by AIS

Note:

*Preliminary data.

Show data
Beef and veal[%] Pigmeat[%] Poultry meat[%]
2000 96 77 110
2001 119 81 113
2002 117 78 110
2003 107 86 114
2004 96 80 115
2005 93 70 112
2006 101 70 108
2007 101 74 114
2008 103 70 113
2009 98 55 109
2010 106 52 112
2011 110 50 113
2012 112 46 109
2013 107 40 117
2014 106 39 111
2015 99 35 103
2016 108 34 107
2017 110 38 109
2018 109 38 109
2019 103 40 111
2020 107 40 111
2021* 110 43 112
Figure KM29-4: Human consumption of agricultural products per capita in Slovenia, 2000–2021
Sources:

SORS, 2022; calculations by AIS

Note:

*Preliminary data.

Show data
Meat, total (carcass weight equivalent)[kg] Eggs[kg] Cereals[kg] Potatoes[kg] Vegetables[kg] Fruit[kg] Milk, total (raw milk equivalent)[kg] Honey[kg]
2000 88.50 10.80 129.80 90.20 78.50 104.50 233.20 1
2001 93 10.10 135.20 79.60 73.40 79.10 227.90 1.20
2002 88 9.60 126.20 79.80 78.70 114.90 234.60 1.20
2003 99.20 6.90 123.60 72.50 81.50 100.10 228.70 1
2004 98.60 6.20 119.50 75.80 89 128.30 235.80 1.20
2005 97.30 6.50 124 76.80 91.30 125.10 235.30 1.10
2006 94.20 7 125.50 78.90 95.60 124.40 218.90 1.40
2007 94.70 8.90 123.90 81.40 90.30 131.70 223.60 0.90
2008 96.60 10 119.20 77.50 101 151.70 234 1
2009 94.10 10.20 108.70 72 103.20 148.50 230 1.10
2010 93.70 10.20 121.10 70.30 91.80 135.20 223.70 1.10
2011 89.50 10.10 118.10 66.40 97.10 129.30 218.90 1.40
2012 88.20 9.10 115.40 63.30 95.30 113 225.90 1
2013 82.20 10.30 112.30 59.40 98.30 129.40 218.60 1.40
2014 85 9.80 119.30 62.40 103.90 131.10 219.90 1.10
2015 88.30 11.10 120.90 68.30 109.90 134.20 218.70 1.40
2016 94.20 10.70 121.40 68.50 113.40 122.70 213.20 1.10
2017 93.10 11.50 121 68 114 121.60 209.90 0.90
2018 92.60 10.90 123.30 66.50 111.40 152.50 215.50 1.10
2019 90.80 11.70 120.40 62 117.50 127.90 214 0.70
2020 87.90 10.40 116.30 63.90 118.10 129 206 0.90
2021* 89.30 10.80 115.10 63.30 115.70 108.50 204.30 0.60
Figure KM29-5: Human consumption of cereals per capita in Slovenia, 2000–2021
Sources:

SORS, 2022; calculations by AIS

Note:

*Preliminary data.

Show data
Wheat[kg] Barley[kg] Rye[kg] Maize[kg]
2000 101 2.10 5.60 19.10
2001 111 0.70 0.80 20.60
2002 103.40 0.70 1.20 19.10
2003 100 0.50 2.80 18.10
2004 97.10 0.60 2.80 16.60
2005 100.10 0.60 4.30 15.80
2006 101.90 0.60 4.90 15
2007 97.60 0.90 4.40 17.70
2008 94.60 0.60 4.40 16.40
2009 86 0.70 4.40 15.30
2010 100.40 0.80 3.80 13.40
2011 97.70 0.80 3 14.20
2012 95.30 0.70 2.80 14.20
2013 92.50 0.70 2.90 13.30
2014 102 0.80 3.70 9.20
2015 103.20 0.80 2.70 10.40
2016 103 0.80 2.90 11.40
2017 101.30 0.70 2.90 11.40
2018 103.80 0.90 3.20 11.30
2019 100.60 0.90 2.30 13.10
2020 98.80 0.90 1.50 11.50
2021* 99.10 1 1.20 9.90
Figure KM29-6: Human consumption of meat (carcass weight equivalent) per capita in Slovenia, 2000–2021
Sources:

SORS, 2022; calculations by AIS

Note:

*Preliminary data.

Show data
Beef and veal[kg] Pigmeat[kg] Poultry meat[kg]
2000 20.60 38.10 24.80
2001 20.20 41.30 26.10
2002 19.20 39.90 24.10
2003 23.60 42.40 24.90
2004 23.40 44.60 23.10
2005 23.60 44.20 24.70
2006 20.70 45.20 23
2007 21.10 42.10 26.10
2008 21.30 43.20 26.70
2009 20.50 40.50 28.10
2010 19.90 41.60 27.70
2011 19.80 39.60 26.20
2012 18.90 37.70 27.70
2013 18.60 35.50 24.80
2014 18.10 36.80 27
2015 19 37 28.90
2016 20 40.80 30
2017 20.80 37.60 31.10
2018 19.80 37.90 31.20
2019 20.10 36.50 30.60
2020 19.60 32.70 31.50
2021* 20.60 32.80 31
Figure KM29-7: Cereal self-sufficiency rate in Slovenia and other countries, 2019–2020
Sources:

Eurostat, 2022; calculations by AIS

Note:

*Preliminary data.

Show data
2019[%] 2020[%]
Lithuania 403.02 520.04
Latvia 379.04 414.66
Estonia 296.54 293.92
Bulgaria 313.88 237.21
Hungary 182.77 181.99
Croatia 143.15 178.27
Slovakia 150.74 167.33
Romania 149.31 144.53
Poland 103.70 115.72
Germany 106.10 105.08
Finland 123.49 100.48
Turkey 87.56 97.33
Slovenia 77.38 92.98
Greece 62.14 65.73
Italy 49.78 50.72
Ireland 53.47 42.10
Portugal 19.56 19.66

Goals

  • Ensuring food security and the highest possible level of self-sufficiency,
  • increasing the level of self-sufficiency by year 2020 for the following agricultural products and product groups: wheat, fodder grains, pulses, oilseeds, potatoes, vegetables (fresh and processed), pig meat, cheese, cottage cheese and honey,
  • increasing the self-sufficiency rate for vegetables to 50% by 2020,
  • increasing the self-sufficiency rate for pig meat to 70% by 2020,
  • by 2027, achieving and maintaining an adequate level of self-sufficiency in food and ensuring food security through the stable production of safe, high-quality and consumer-friendly food.

Countries can achieve food security through two mechanisms: self-sufficiency or imports from other countries. Self-sufficiency indicates the extent to which the country is able to provide the necessary quantities of food through domestic production. This is very important in ensuring the availability of food to the population, especially in conditions of disrupted international trade and strong price fluctuations in foreign markets. Self-sufficiency presents not only the basis for food security, but also allows the use of own production resources, maintains rural employment and cultivation, reduces poverty, and is important for human health and the environment. A higher level of self-sufficiency reduces the need for food imports, which also contributes to the reduction in emissions due to shorter transport distances (Revizijsko poročilo …, 2021).

Slovenia is one of the countries that are net importers of food, as domestic production does not fully cover the total domestic needs. The level of self-sufficiency for animal products is generally higher than the level of self-sufficiency for crops, while the lowest levels are on average recorded for vegetables, fruit and potatoes. Self-sufficiency rates in crop production are characterized by significant year-to-year fluctuations due to more or less abundant harvests (total amount of crops), which are also strongly influenced by extreme weather conditions, such as drought, frost, etc. (Travnikar et al., 2022). Global megatrends show that the increasingly variable climate in the future may negatively affect food production in terms of quantity and quality, thereby increasing Slovenia's dependence on the world markets (Sadauskis et al., 2019).

Self-sufficiency rates as well as per capita consumption of agricultural products in Slovenia are compared between the period before EU accession (2000–2003), the post-accession period (2004–2016) and the most recent years (2017–2021). Prior to EU accession, Slovenia was on average self-sufficient in milk and honey, and almost completely self-sufficient in eggs and meat. Of the individual types of meat, self-sufficiency was achieved in beef and poultry meat, while the self-sufficiency rate of pig meat was 81%. Average self-sufficiency in potatoes was also high (78%), while for other agricultural products it did not exceed 60%. In the post-accession period (2004–2013), the self-sufficiency rate of meat, potatoes, fruit and honey decreased more noticeably. In the case of potatoes and fruit, the reason is in reduced production volumes and extreme weather conditions, while self-sufficiency in meat was lower due to the significant decline in pig meat production. The latter declined due to slow structural changes, weak competitiveness, and price pressure (cheaper imports of foreign pig meat). A year after accession to the EU, a reform of the EU sugar market was adopted, which led to the closure of the sugar factory in Slovenia. Since then, no sugar has been produced in Slovenia, while before the adoption of reform, the self-sufficiency rate was on average 50%. In recent years (2017–2021), Slovenia had surpluses in milk, beef and poultry meat production. A high level of self-sufficiency was on average also achieved in grain maize (96%) and eggs (95%). The largest deficit in production, which had to be covered by imports, was in fruit, vegetables, potatoes, pig meat and honey. Compared to the pre-accession period (2000–2003), the level of self-sufficiency has decreased significantly in recent years for meat, potatoes, fruit and honey. Self-sufficiency in fruit, honey and pig meat has decreased the most (by more than half), while it has remained at similar levels for vegetables, beef, poultry meat and eggs. Only for cereals and milk, the level of self-sufficiency is significantly higher. In the case of cereals, an upward trend can be observed throughout the analysed period for all the main types (rye, barley and maize), except for wheat.

The data show that Slovenia has not met the goals set in the Strategic plan on implementing the resolution on strategic guidelines for agricultural and food industry development by 2020. The self-sufficiency in vegetables is slowly increasing but has not yet exceeded 50%, while the level of self-sufficiency in pig meat has remained at an average of 40% in recent years.

A comparison of self-sufficiency rates for cereals between Slovenia and the 16 European Union member states and Turkey shows large differences between countries. In 2020, the highest self-sufficiency rates were achieved in the Baltic states: Lithuania (520%), Latvia (415%) and Estonia (294%), followed by Bulgaria (237%) and Hungary (182%). Croatia, Slovakia, Romania, Poland, Germany and Finland were also self-sufficient. Among the analysed countries, Slovenia ranked in the bottom third (13th place) in terms of self-sufficiency in cereals (self-sufficiency rate 93%). Lower self-sufficiency levels than in Slovenia were in 2020 in Greece (66%), Italy (51%), Ireland (42%) and Portugal (20%).

Like self-sufficiency rates, the per capita consumption of agricultural products in Slovenia fluctuates from year to year. The upward trend in human consumption is the most evident for vegetables, as in the period of the last few years (2017–2021) compared to the pre-accession period (2000–2003), consumption increased by 48%, namely from 78 to 115 kg per capita. The consumption of fruit (+28%; to 128 kg per capita) and eggs (+18%; to 11 kg per capita) also increased. On the other hand, the consumption of potatoes decreased the most in relative terms (–20%; to 65 kg per capita), while the consumption of milk decreased the most in quantitative terms. In the period of the last few years, each inhabitant of Slovenia consumed an average of 210 kg of milk in all forms, which is 21 kg less than in the pre-accession period. The consumption of cereals for food is also decreasing, amounting to an average of 119 kg per capita in recent years, which is 9 kg less than in the pre-accession period. Average meat consumption has decreased slightly between the two analysed periods (–2%; to 91 kg per capita), mainly due to lower consumption of pig meat. On the other hand, consumption of poultry meat has shown an increasing trend, averaging about 31 kg per capita in recent years.


Methodology

Date of data source summarization
Other sources and literature

Revizijsko poročilo: Zagotavljanje prehranske varnosti s pomočjo prehranske samooskrbe. 2021. Ljubljana, Računsko sodišče Republike Slovenije.
https://www.rs-rs.si/fileadmin/user_upload/Datoteke/Revizije/2021/Samooskrba/Samooskrba_RSP_RevizijskoP.pdf (21.9.2022)

Sadauskis R., Kolarič Š., White O. 2019. Vpliv globalnih megatrendov na stanje okolja v Sloveniji: Sklepne ugotovitve in priporočila. Bernard Vukadin (ur.). Ljubljana, Ministrstvo za okolje in prostor – Agencija Republike Slovenije za okolje: 92 str.
http://nfp-si.eionet.europa.eu:8980/Public/irc/eionet-circle/javna/library?l=/cooperation_eeasodelovan/sloveniji_2017-2018/konno_poroilo&vm=detailed&sb=Title (19.10.2022)

Travnikar T. (ur.), Bedrač M., Bele S., Brečko J., Dvoršak H. A., Kožar M., Ložar L., Moljk B., Zagorc B. 2022. Poročilo o stanju kmetijstva, živilstva, gozdarstva in ribištva v letu 2021. Ljubljana, Kmetijski inštitut Slovenije: 264 str.
https://www.kis.si/f/docs/Porocila_o_stanju_v_kmetijstvu/ZP_2021_splosno__priloge_6.9.2022.pdf (26.10.2022)


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