Key message

In 2012, greenhouse gas emissions from transport in Slovenia had increased by 185% compared to 1986. Also, at the EU level, GHG emissions from transport by far exceeded the growth – in the period 1990–2014, they increased by 13% (in Slovenia, they increased by slightly less than 97% in the same period). A major source of GHGs is road transport, which contributed approximately 99.2% in 2012. The share of GHG emissions from transport (31% in 2012) and insufficiently effective measures to reduce GHGs makes fulfilling commitments under the Kyoto Protocol difficult to accomplish in Slovenia.





This indicator shows greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from transport in Slovenia from the base year 1986 onwards by transport mode in Slovenia and in European countries in the period 1990–2014. Total emissions are subdivided into road, air and rail transport. Maritime and inland waterway transport emissions are included in road transport, as there is no separate data available on fuel consumption for this purpose. Emissions from international bunkers are not included and are not considered to be national emissions.

Greenhouse gas emissions include carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), dinitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFC), perfluorocarbons (PFC) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6). For comparability purposes, the GHG amounts are calculated as CO2 equivalent, taking into account the differences between the global warming potential of individual gases. Emissions from transport relate to the first three of the above-mentioned gases.


Figure PR09-1: Greenhouse gas emissions by type of transport, Slovenia, 1986-2014

Greenhouse Gas Emission Database, Slovenian Environment Agency,2014.

Show data
total pipeline transport rail transport road transport air transport
1986 2028.14 0 76.99 1950.54 0.61
1987 2318.05 0 76.33 2241.31 0.41
1988 2497.36 0 73.76 2423.01 0.59
1989 2528.42 0 74.95 2452.64 0.83
1990 2733.24 0 72.77 2659.39 1.08
1991 2580.12 0 81.26 2498.25 0.61
1992 2655.24 0 54.61 2599.66 0.97
1993 3098.28 0 46.23 3050.33 1.73
1994 3448.58 0 46.76 3399.79 2.03
1995 3823.24 0 48.79 3772.47 1.98
1996 4459.09 0 45.38 4411.50 2.21
1997 4526.36 0 43.98 4480.02 2.37
1998 3900.94 0 42.97 3855.04 2.93
1999 3708.47 0 41.88 3663.76 2.83
2000 3857.39 0 42.64 3811.92 2.84
2001 3979.78 0 41.62 3935.84 2.32
2002 3864.72 0 43.82 3818.59 2.31
2003 4003.77 0 41.14 3960.25 2.37
2004 4153.50 0 41.74 4109.89 1.87
2005 4427.43 0 42.39 4383.38 1.66
2006 4647.08 0 42.29 4603.30 1.49
2007 5228.24 0 42.29 5184.26 1.69
2008 6156.90 2.11 45.81 6107.55 1.43
2009 5325.19 3.38 42.29 5277.96 1.55
2010 5264.82 4.38 42.29 5216.50 1.65
2011 5698.17 0.83 42.29 5653.13 1.92
2012 5772.46 1.14 42.29 5727.30 1.72
2013 5459.12 0.46 35.24 5422.09 1.32
2014 5384.29 1.77 45.81 5335.22 1.48
Figure PR09-2: GHG emissions trend by mode of transport and by gas, Slovenia, 1986-2014

Greenhouse Gas Emission Database, Slovenian Environment Agency,2014.

Show data
emissions 1986 emissions 2014 change 1986-2014 (%)
CO2 1975.00 5321.15 169.43
CH4 0.90 0.28 -68.84
N2O 0.10 0.19 82.79
air transport 0.61 1.48 140.50
road transport 1950.54 5335.22 173.53
rail transport 76.99 45.81 -40.49
Figure PR09-3: Changes in total greenhouse gas emissions by transport in European countries, 1990-2014
Show data
Czech Republic 135.54
Luxemburg 126.79
Ireland 120.95
Poland 114.61
Slovenia 96.99
Malta 89.91
Austria 58.71
Portugal 56.80
Cyprus 49.90
Croatia 41.85
Iceland 39.11
Spain 35.07
Hungary 27.40
Romania 25.57
Bulgaria 25.49
Belgium 22.15
Greece 21.04
EU-28 13.30
Denmark 12.98
Netherlands 10.04
France 8.51
Italy 1.56
Germany -1.99
Latvia -2.60
Slovakia -5.05
Sweden -7.77
Estonia -8.59
Finland -8.67
Lithuania -34.27
United Kingdom -0.27
Finland -4.16
Sweden -6.10
Germany -0.98
Latvia -3.51
Estonia 0.86
Lithuania 0.56


Pursuant to Decision No. 406/2009 EC, each Member State must, by 2020, limit its greenhouse gas emissions from sectors not included in the emission trading scheme by at least the percentage set for the Member State with regard to its emissions in 2005. Slovenia is allowed to increase its emissions by 4% compared to 2005 levels.

In accordance with Directive 2009/30/EC, fuel suppliers must, by 31 December 2020, reduce life cycle greenhouse gas emissions from road transport by 6–10% compared to 2010 values. The reduction is to be obtained through the use of biofuels, alternative fuels and reductions in flaring and venting at production sites and the use of environmentally friendly carbon capture and storage technologies and electric vehicles.

The White Paper and the Roadmap for moving to a competitive low-carbon economy in 2050 specify the following targets for greenhouse gas emissions from transport:

  • 20% reduction of GHG emissions from transport by 2030 compared to 2008 values and at least 60% reduction by 2050 compared to 1990 values;
  • 40% share of sustainable fuels with low carbon content in air transport and a 40% (50% if applicable) reduction (at the EU level) of CO2 emissions resulting from fuels in ship fuel tanks by 2050 compared to 2005 values.


The Operational Programme to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions by 2020 sets the target for the reduction of GHG from transport at 9% compared to 2008 values. A long-term target is to reduce emissions from the transport sector by at least 50% by 2050.

Mitigation of climate change is the biggest environmental development challenge facing humanity. Scientific results show that there is a connection between GHG emissions (CO2, CH4, N2O and F-gases) and atmospheric temperature. As the amount of anthropogenic greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is intensively increasing due to increasing emissions, particularly as a result of fuel consumption, there is a high probability of a temperature increase in the future. This would strongly influence life on Earth. Therefore, a campaign has been commenced at the international level, the objective of which is to reduce GHG emissions to values that would have an acceptable impact on the environment. The Kyoto Protocol stipulates emissions for the period 2008–2012 with regard to emissions in the base year, which are defined for Slovenia as the sum of CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions in 1986 (the base year for developed countries is 1990) and F-gases in 1995. The limitation of GHG emissions in Slovenia obtained a legal framework and specific objectives with the adoption of the Act Ratifying the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (Official Gazette of the Republic of Slovenia, No. 60/2002).

At the 12th conference meeting of the contracting parties in 2006, negotiations on new objectives for the period after 2012 began. The leading role was taken over by the European Union, which adopted an objective in 2007 to reduce GHG emissions by 20% (or 30 %) by 2020 with regard to the base year. A 20% reduction in emissions is required if the international agreement on the reduction of GHG emissions is not adopted and a 30% reduction if it is.

According to the data obtained by the Slovenian Environment Agency, the largest share of GHG is contributed by transport (32% in 2014), followed by the energy sector (27%). Transport GHG emissions almost tripled in the period 1986-2014. Road transport emissions increased by 173% and air transport emissions by 140%; on the other hand, rail transport emissions decreased by 41%. In the structure of greenhouse gasses in the considered period, CO2 emissions increased the most (169%), followed by N2O emissions (83%), while CH4 emissions decreased by 69%.

Road transport is the largest source of transport emissions. In 2014, it contributed 99.1% of all transport emissions. The number of road motor vehicles as well as the power and capacity of their engines has been constantly increasing in Slovenia, while the specific use of new vehicles has been in slow decline. The development of infrastructure, especially in urban areas, cannot follow such growth; therefore, congestion has been becoming more frequent. In recent years, the increase in road freight (especially transit) transport through Slovenia is also a major problem. The share of transit freight transport emissions in 2014 was estimated to be 35.5%, while other emissions are caused by passenger transport (personal transport 63.2%, bus transport 1.4%).

According to the data compiled by the European Environment Agency, GHG emissions from transport (excluding international air and maritime transport) in the EU-28 increased by 13% in the period 1990–2014. With air and maritime transport included, GHG emissions decreased in the period 1990–2014. The decrease in recent years is probably a consequence of reduced freight transport and higher fuel prices, as well as the economic recession. Although EU maritime transport emissions decreased, additional measures will need to be adopted in the EU to achieve a 68% reduction of emissions from transport by 2050 compared to 1990 values (TERM, 2016).

According to the growth of emissions, Slovenia was ranked fifth among 33 European Environment Agency member countries in 2014. In older Member States, growth in emissions has stabilised in recent years, while in the same period, growth has been significant in new Member States. Road and air transport contributed to this growth; GHG emissions from international air transport and maritime transport are also increasing rapidly, but these emissions are not included in the GHG emission totals relevant for the Kyoto targets.

For the fulfilment of its Kyoto Protocol commitments, in 2009, the Government of the Republic of Slovenia adopted an amended and supplemented Operational Programme to Reduce GHG Emissions. According to the last report to the Government on the implementation of the Operational Programme for 2011, lower transport emissions in recent years are a result of a considerable reduction in international trade flows, meaning the volume of road freight transport. The adaptation of excise duties, meaning that retail fuel prices remained comparable to prices in neighbouring countries, was also an important factor. Despite introducing urgent sustainable transport policy measures, Slovenia still failed to meet its Kyoto commitments. Substantial funds for investments in railway infrastructure were secured at the beginning of 2010 to help meet these requirements. In the same year, activities in the field of public passenger transport also intensified. Although support for the development and introduction of low-carbon technologies has increased (new competitive and development centres, a programme to support the introduction of electric vehicles), this area, as a whole, has not yet been given priority in research and development policy.

In 2014, the Government adopted the new Operational Programme to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions by 2020. It sets a long-term target to reduce emissions from the transport sector by at least 50% by 2050 and 9% by 2020 compared to 2008 values. In order to meet these goals, implementation of various measures is planned, e.g. introduction of low-carbon technologies, sustainable transport and ensuring equal or better quality of life with fewer kilometres travelled. Until 2020, the measures will primarily be focused on the improvement of efficiency of vehicles, support of technologies and fuels with lower CO2 emissions and improvement of the quality and accessibility of public transport in order to intensify its use and optimise transport.




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