Key message

In 2019, the material footprint of households in Slovenia amounted to around 15 tons per inhabitant, which is more than the EU average (14.6 tons per inhabitant). Finland, Romania, Estonia and Luxembourg have the largest material footprint with around 28-29 tonnes per capita, the Netherlands the lowest with 7.4 tonnes.

Waste recycling is increasing; in 2018, eight countries (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Slovenia) sent at least half of their municipal waste for recycling. However, in Romania, Malta and Cyprus, only a tenth of municipal waste was sent for recycling.

According to a survey in Germany, mobility, housing and food represent the largest material footprint in households, with the footprint increasing with higher income, especially in the area of ​​mobility.

With the largest consumption footprint across five areas (food, mobility, housing, household goods and appliances), they contribute the most to climate change in Luxembourg, Denmark, Malta, Cyprus, Germany, Italy and Ireland, and the least in Bulgaria, Romania and Slovakia. Slovenia is in the middle among the member states.


Table PG10-1: Decoupling of raw material use, Slovenija

UN Environment, Economy Division (23.10.2022)

Figure PG10-2: Municipal solid waste generation and recyclingin EU, 2018

European Commission, Environment Directorate, Ecoinnovation (23. 10. 2022)

Show data
EU 28[%] Romania[%] Poland[%] Czech Republic[%] Slovakia[%] Estonia[%] Hungary[%] Croatia[%] Belgium[%] Bulgaria[%] Latvia[%] Spain[%] Sweden[%] Lithuania[%] Slovenia[%] Portugal[%] Italy[%] Finland[%] France[%] Greece [%] Netherlands[%] Austria[%] Ireland [%] Malta[%] Luxembourg[%] Germany[%] Cyprus (2017)[%] Denmark[%] United Kingdom[%]
Country 47 11 34 34 36 29 38 25 55 31 25 35 46 53 54 29 50 42 45 20 56 58 38 10 49 67 10 50 44
Table PG10-3: Material footprint of households in Finland, 2012

Material Footprint of Low-Income Households in Finland, 2012, Michael Lettenmeier (October 23, 2022)

Table PG10-4: Material footprint of Member States

European Union, Eurostat - European statistics (October 23, 2022)

Table PG10-5: Material Footprint of households in Germany, 2019

Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie gGmbH (October 23, 2022)

Table PG10-6: Consumer footprint by Member States, 2020

European Commission, JRC, EPLCA (November 25, 2022)


Date of data source summarization