Key message

The estimated value of external transport costs in 2021 is approximately 2.4 billion euros, accounting for 4.6% of Slovenia's GDP. The majority (99%) of these costs are attributed to road traffic, while only 1% is attributed to rail traffic. Two-thirds of external costs arise from passenger traffic, with the remaining one-third from freight traffic. Notably, a third of the external costs of transport are associated with traffic accidents, followed by costs related to congestion (20%), climate change (18%), air pollution (16%), damage to habitats (7%), and noise (6%).

External costs of transport, also known as marginal social costs, refer to the negative impacts of transport on society. The user of the transport system, who caused them, does not bear these costs. The primary categories of these costs include traffic accidents, local and global air pollution. Noise and congestion can also play a significant role, especially in specific circumstances, such as urban traffic. In contrast, internal costs of transport are fully covered by the individual user of the transport system. This includes the costs of purchasing and maintaining a vehicle, fuel, tolls, taxes, time spent, etc. Total transport social costs encompass both external and internal costs (EEA, 2002). For the purpose of comparability with other countries, external transport costs are expressed in millions of euros and as a share of GDP. The indicator provides an assessment of external costs in Slovenia for 2021.


Figure PR05-1: The extent of external costs of road and rail transport for passenger and freight transport in Slovenia, 2021

PNZ, 2023

Show data
Rail transport Road transport
Passenger transport (mio €) 779.76 1587.79
Freight transport (mio €) 21.77 9.24
Figure PR05-2: Volume of external costs of road and rail transport by category in Slovenia, 2021

PNZ, 2023

Show data
Passenger transport (mio €) Freight transport (mio €)
Traffic accidents 606.75 179.91
Air pollution 165.42 208.76
Climate change 289.13 154.04
Noise 69.28 77.92
Congestion 357.38 131.01
Damage to habitats 109.07 49.89
Figure PR05-3: Share of individual external costs in Slovenia's GDP in 2021

PNZ, 2023

Show data
Total Damage to habitats Congestion Noise Climate change Air pollution Traffic accidents
Share of GDP (%) 0.05 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.02


Other sources and literature

  • CE Delft, 2019. Transport taxes and charges in Europe An overview study of economic internalisation measures applied in Europe. Delft, CE Delft, March 2019.
  • EC, 2011. White Paper: Roadmap to a Single European Transport Area : Towards a competitive and resource efficient transport system, COM(2011)144 final, Brussels: European Commission (EC).
  • EC, 2016. Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, The Council, The European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions : A European Strategy for Low-Emission Mobility, COM(2016)501 final, Brussels: European Commission (EC).