You are here

Key message

Asthma is the most common chronic disease among children and one of the major causes of hospitalization to the age of fifteen. In 2019, in EU countries, the share of people reporting asthma was 5,7 %, and for Slovenia it was 4,8 %.  In the period 2017-2021, the municipalities of Kostel, Kobilje and Cankova stood out in terms of the number of hospitalizations for asthma. Recent evidences support relationship between exposure to air pollution and exacerbation of asthma, mainly due to exposure to particulate matter (PM10).  In addition to polluted outdoor air, the development of asthma is also influenced by polluted indoor air. The presence of allergens like moisture, mold, mites, pets and cigarette smoke increases the risk of developing asthma.


Figure ZD02-1: Number of hospitalizations for asthma in children and adolescents aged 0 to 19 (per 1,000) by municipalities, Slovenia, 2017-2021

NIJZ, 2023

Figure ZD02-2: Share of people reporting asthma in EU, 2019

Eurostat, 2023

Show data
proportion of population (%) 2019
EU (27 countries - from 2020) 5,7
Belgium 5,8
Bulgaria 2,2
Czechia 4,6
Denmark 7,2
Germany 8
Estonia 4,1
Ireland 7,3
Greece 3,3
Spain 4,1
France 7,8
Croatia 4,8
Italy 4,6
Cyprus 4
Latvia 3,8
Lithuania 2,8
Luxembourg 6
Hungary 5
Malta 6
Netherlands 6,4
Austria 4,3
Poland 4,1
Portugal 6,1
Romania 1,5
Slovenia 4,8
Slovakia 4
Finland 9,4
Sweden 7,5
Norway 7,9

Other sources and literature

  1. Brunekreeft B., 2002. Air pollution and health. The Lancet, vol 360, October 2002, 1233 – 1242.
  2. Cohen A.J. et al, 2004. Urban air pollution. In: Ezzati M et al, eds. Comparative quantification of health risks. Vol.2. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2004:1353-1433.
  3. ENHIS, 2007. Prevalence of asthma and allergies in children. Europe, World Health Organization.
  4. EUROSTAT, 2023. Persons reporting a chronic disease, by disease, sex, age and educational attainment level. Luxembourg, EUROSTAT.
  5. Guarnieri, M., & Balmes, J. R., 2014. Outdoor air pollution and asthma. Lancet (London, England), 383(9928), 1581–1592. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60617-6
  6. Hakimeh D, Tripodi S., 2013. Recent advances on diagnosis and management of childhood asthma and food allergies, Italian Journal of Pediatrics. 2013;39: 80-94.
  7. Health Effects Institute, 2010. Traffic-Related Air Pollution. A Critical Review of the Literature on Emissions, Exposure, and Health Effects. Boston, Health Effects Institute
  8. ISAAC Steering Committee, 1998. Worldwide variation in prevalence of symptoms of asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and atopic eczema: ISAAC. Lancet, 1998, 351:1225-1232.
  9. Kim, B.J., Hong, S.J., Anbient Air pollution and allergic diseases in children.Korean J Pediatr,2012; 55(6):185-92.
  10. Marshall, G.D, 2004. Internal and external environmental influences in allergic diseases. Journal of the American Osteophatic Association, 104(Suppl 5):S1-6.
  11. McConnell, R., Berhane, K., Yao, L., 2006. et al. Traffic, susceptibility and childhood asthma. Environ Health Perspect. 2006 May; 114(5):766-72.
  12. McConnell, R., Berhane, K., Yao, L., Jerrett, M., Lurmann, F., Gilliland, F., Künzli, N., Gauderman, J., Avol, E., Thomas, D., & Peters, J., 2006. Traffic, susceptibility, and childhood asthma. Environmental health perspectives, 114(5), 766–772. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.8594
  13. NIJZ, 2023a. Sprejemi v bolnišnico, 2021. Ljubljana, NIJZ.
  14. NIJZ, 2023b. Zdravje v občini, 2022. Ljubljana, NIJZ. (Dosegljivo na: https://obcine.nijz.si/tematske-karte/2023)
  15. Soto-Ramirez N. et al. 2013. Epidemiologic Methods of Assessing Asthma and Wheezing Episodes in Longitudinal Studies: Measures of Change ad Stability. Journal of Epidemology. 3013; 23(6): 299-410.
  16. Stankiewicz- Choroszucha, B.L., 2011. et al. Consequences of smoke inhalation in the epidemology of allergic diseases in Poland project (ECAP).Ann of Agricult and Environment Med. 2011; 18(2):429-28.
  17. Šuškovič, S., Košnik, M., 2006. Strokovna izhodišča za smernice za obravnavo bolnika z astmo, Zdravniški Vestnik 2006.
  18. WHO, 2006. Asthma. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2006. Fact sheet No. 307. (7 March 2007).

Related indicators