Energy use contributes 82 % to total greenhouse gases emissions in Slovenia. The largest source of emissions is electricity and heat production, followed by transport.
By introducing a system of trading with greenhouse gases emissions in EU (EU-ETS), only emissions of sources which are not included in the EU ETS system, are important to achieve the goals of the state for the reduction of greenhouse gases emissions by the year 2020. The greatest source is transport which contributes 51 %, and energy sources together contribute 76 %.In the year 2013 emissions were lower than the target value for this year for 12.5 %.
The emissions intensity of SO2, NOx and CO2 from electricity and heat production in public conventional thermal power plants has decreased in 2010 compared to 1992 by 97 % (SO2), 44 % (NOx) and 19 % (CO2) respectively. Compared to the average of EU-27 intensity in 2010 was lower for SO2 and higher for NOx and CO2.
Even though electricity and heat production increased by 33 % in the 1990-2010 period, CO2, emissions increased “only” by 3 %, predominantly due to a greater efficiency of production. SO2 emissions reduced by 96 % due to the installation of desulphurisation devices and a greater production efficiency, and NOx emissions by 39 % due to the implementation of primary measures on installations used for the reduction of NOx emissions (installation or replacement of burners, etc.), the improved methodology of calculating emissions and a greater production efficiency.
Residue generation from the combustion of coal decreased in the 2002-2008 period mainly due to a higher quality of lignite. The largest source is the Šoštanj Thermal Power Plant contributing over 80 % of residues. Only 7 % of residues are disposed, while the remainder are mostly used as filling material in mines and in the production of cement and concrete.
In the 1990-2011 period, the quantity of spent nuclear fuel, which is the only type of high-level waste in Slovenia, increased by 6 % annually. As there is still no satisfactory method of waste storage, the accumulation of this waste poses a reason for concern. At the end of 2009, the location for the low and intermediate level radioactive waste repository in Vrbina pri Krškem was finally confirmed.
In the period 1990-2013, SO2 emissions were reduced the most, followed by NMVOC emissions, NOx, NH3 and PM2.5 emissions were reduced the least. That affected the reduction of emissions of substances which cause acidification, predecessors of ozone and solid particles. NOx is the only substance which is present in an important share in all three groups. The main source of NOx emissions is transport, followed by electricity and heat production.
In the year 2013 SO2, NOx, NMVOC and NH3 emissions were lower than target values. To achieve goals in 2020 it will be necessary to strengthen the implementation of measures for the reduction of NOx and PM2.5 emissions.
In 2014 the use of final energy was 4 % lower as regards the year before and 12.5 % lower than the use in the year 2008, when the highest value was achieved in the observed period. Most energy is used in transport, followed by industry, households and other use. Lower use in 2014 compared to 2008 is especially a consequence of economic crisis, but important is also the impact of energy efficiency improvement. The use in 2014 was with 4.607 ktoe for 10 % lower than the target for the year 2020.
Slovenia has a high degree of energy intensity, its reduction stopped in the years 2008-2011. Reduction was again noticed in the last three years, especially in 2014 the reduction was encouraging. Long term trend of approaching the average of EU-28 is too slow.
In 2011, electricity consumption increased due to some economic growth. In 2000-2011 period, the average consumption growth was 1.7% per annum, which matches the projections in the current NEP. Compared to the year 2000, the biggest growth was recorded in services sector, followed by the households.
In the production of electricity and heat in thermal power plants and combined heat and power plants 55% of input energy was lost in the year 2010. Due to a lack of new investments, the efficiency of electricity production and of electricity and heat production is improving too slowly. Compared to the EU-27, Slovenia produced electricity and heat 4 percentage points less efficiently.
Electricity production from CHP has significantly increased in 2012, but it was nevertheless still far from the target for 2010.
According to the size indicator of energy intensity of final energy consumption Slovenia is in significantly worse place than the average of EU-27. In the last three years, the energy intensity of final energy consumption increased. The only sector by reducing energy intensity in the last three years are households.
In 2011, total energy consumption increased for 0.7% and reached the peak after the year 2008. The share of liquid fuels was the highest, followed by nuclear energy, solid fuels, renewable energy sources and gaseous fuels. In 2011, the shares of nuclear energy, liquid fuels and solid fuels increased. Total energy consumption growth in Slovenia after the year 2000 was higher than in the EU-27.
In 2011 continued the dominance of solid fuels for the production of electricity, which has been available for use in Slovenia, but the share is slowly decreasing. Followed by renewable energy sources to 30% share and of nuclear energy has been produced 24% of electricity. The share of electricity produced from domestic sources was 80% above the target set by the Resolution of the National Energy Program.
Renewables in 2011 represented 13.2 % of inland gross consumption, which is less than in the previous year. Although this was higher than the target for 2010. Among the reasons for higher share are increased use of renewable energy sources, reduced gross inland consumption due to economic crisis and improvement of the statistics for renewable energy sources. The most important renewable energy source is wood biomass, followed by hydropower.
Electricity production from RES in 2008 was significantly higher than the year before that due to higher water stages and the start-up of the co-incineration of wood biomass in larger thermal energy facilities. However, in 2008 Slovenia still stayed behind the set objective for 2010 by 13 %.
Energy prices increased in the period 2008-2014. In the same period, the most raised the price of electrical energy (37 %) for households, followed by price for petrol NMB 95 by 34%, the price of heating oil for 32%, natural gas for industry for 25%, diesel fuel D2 for 24%, natural gas for households for 21%, at least has raised the price for electricity for industry, for less than 4%.
In recent years, energy taxes increased mainly due to higher excise duties and taxes. Share of tax in price of energy in industry has reached the same level as in price for households. In Slovenia taxes for transport fuels and natural gas in 2011 were higher than the average for EU27, while for electricity they were lower.
It is estimated that in 2014 in Slovenia more than 324 million EUR of subsidies were allocated in the energy sector (212 million EUR in constant prices with reference year 2000). Share of subsidies for use of fossil fuels represented 37% in 2014, while in 2005 their share was 74 %. Subsidies for energy efficiency measures and renewable energy sources have greatly increased in the observed period representing 63% of total subsidies in 2014.
In Slovenia, external costs of electricity production, which are generated as a consequence of the impact of electricity production on the environment, are higher than in the EU-25, especially since a large part of electricity is produced from coal. Despite increasing environmental awareness, the price of electricity still does not reflect all external costs. Due to incorrect price signals, received by consumers and electricity producers, energy resources in Slovenia remain used in a non-optimal way.
In 2013 a fast increase of renewables share in the gross use of final energy happened. Increase of shares in all three sectors, electric energy, heating and cooling and transport contributed to the increase. In 2014 due to an exceptionally warm winter reduction of the usage of renewable sources in the heating and cooling sector happened. Besides that the use of renewable sources was reduced also in transport. Due to that, despite the reduction of final energy use, the RES share decreased. In 2013 the total share was 22.5 %, in 2014 it reduced to 21.9 %, that is fair 3 percentage points less than the target for the year 2020.
Import dependency of Slovenia has been decreased in the period 2009-2011, but in 2012 it increased by 2 percentage points. Most problematic is the import dependence for gaseous fuels, as Slovenia is heavily dependent on imports from Russia and Algeria.
In Slovenia, final users have at their disposal only around 70 % of primary energy. The efficiency of electricity and heat production mostly influences this share.
The most of energy in transport is used in cars, followed by trucks, the share of which is growing very fast. Efficiency of energy use with excluded influence of transit transport is improving, but too slow.
The most of energy in households is used for heating of appartments. In the period 2009-2012, efficiency of energy use increased a lot, especially on the account of increase of efficiency of energy used for heating.
Most of industrial energy is consumed in the production of metals. In the period 2008-2012, the efficiency of energy use has increased, while the trends in individual sectors are very different and diverse.
In 2014 an important change in the structure of electricity production happened. The first time after the year 1994, the most of electricity was produced from RES and not any more from nuclear energy, the third place is taken by solid fuels. The share of production from gaseous fuels was small. The share of electricity production from domestic sources was with 93 % above the target share from the Resolution on the national energy programme. Total production of electricity in Slovenia exceeded gross use for 21 %.
The electricity use in 2014 was reduced, that is especially a consequence of the use reduction in sector other use. In the period 2000-2014 the use in average was growing with the degree 1.2 % per year. The peak was reached in 2007. After 2011 the use stabilized. Almost half of the electricity is used in industry, the services sector and households follow with quarterly shares.
70% of energy supply is on disposal to the final users in Slovenia. The biggest influence on the share has the efficiency of production of electrical energy and heat.
At the electrical energy and heat production in thermal power plant and thermal power heating plant has lost 54% of lodged energy in 2014. Efficiency of production is improving to slow due to the lack of upgrades. In compare with EU-28 from year 2013, the efficiency was 3% lower.
The production of electrical energy from cogeneration has decreased in year 2013 and is even further away from 2010 goal.
The most energy in traffic is used in personal cars, following cargo vehicles with increasing share. Efficiency of energy use with excluded influence of transit traffic is improving, but too slowly. The most energy in households is being used for heat. The efficiency of energy use has in period 2009 – 2012 increased, mostly due to the increased energy use efficiency for heat and for large household appliances. The most energy in industry is being used in metal production. The common energy use efficiency has in industry increased until 2011, after that there are no changes and the trends are in all sectors very different and dynamic.