The population trend of selected bird species is a good indicator of long-term state of the environment. Trends in populations of selected bird species show that the state of the environment in the cultural landscape is deteriorating, while the situation in wetlands over the past few years did not change. There is a slight decline in the populations of selected forest bird species. In recent years, populations of wintering birds in Slovenian rivers and other bodies of water are also stable. Minor fluctuations are part of the natural population change.
Despite its small surface area the species diversity in Slovenia is extremely high. The abundance among numerous plant and animal species is decreasing. They are endangered and might become extinct. For example, more than four fifths of all known amphibians and reptiles as well as almost half of all mammals, that is 41, are on the Red List of threatened species in Slovenia.
Slovenia has some of the greatest subterranean biodiversity in the whole world. The aquatic fauna with 200 species is by far the richest, while the terrestrial fauna with 150 species is second only to more southern parts of the Dinaric Karst. Five Slovenian cave systems have been listed among the 20 richest cave systems in the world. The Postojna-Planina Cave System with its 50 aquatic and 35 terrestrial species is by far the most abundant. The Cave Protection Act protects the subterranean environment as a whole. The state in subterranean habitats has been observed to deteriorate; the decline is especially drastic around Kočevje.
The population of the brown bear (Ursus arctos) in Slovenia forms part of the larger population in the Alps – Dinarides (Dinaric Alps) – Pindus Mountains, one of the larger popularions of the brown bear in Europe. It is estimated to 2,100 – 2,500 specimen. The status of the population in Slovenia has been monitored by the Slovenia Forest Service and is deemed favourable. The brown bear lives in large forest areas; in Slovenia, it is present in high Karst fir and beech foliage, so the indicator indirectly reflects the status of this forestry, included in the Natura 2000 network.
In 2015 754 loss events were considered. For 657 loss events the compensation has been fully or partially granted in the amount of € 300,194.74. Compensation is claimed for damage caused by animals of different 20 protected species. The most common perpetrators of harm are large carnivores, the damage is often caused to sheep and goats and the most incidents happen in the period from July to October.
Estimated density of the population of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Slovenian territorial waters has been relatively stable since 2004, with an annual density estimate of 0.068-0.07 specimen per square km or around 70 dolphins per year on average.
Slovenian territorial waters regularly host the local dolphin population throughout the entire year. Due to their mobile lifestyle, however, dolphins can also be seen beyond Slovenian maritime borders, in Italian and Croatian waters.
The conservation status of species in Slovenia shows that only about a quarter of the species reach favorable situation. Furthermore the trends are unfavourable. In the years 2008 - 2012 the proportion of species with a favorable conservation status otherwise increased, however the proportion of species with poor conservation status also increased. To achieve the objectives of the strategy its guidelines must be consistently taken into account and program and management plans of protected areas must be implemented.
Favourable conservation status of habitat types in Slovenia reaches almost half of the habitat types, but to achieve the objectives of the Strategy, we should consistently follow the guidelines of and implement the program and management plans of protected areas. This is particularly important for areas with fresh water, wetlands, bog and grassland habitat types .
Since 2008 the farmland birds index declined to 75.4 , and the index of meadow bird species in the agricultural landscape to 62.5.
nature protection designated area
In 2009, nature protected areas, which include designated nature protected areas, Natura 2000 sites as well as areas that fulfil the conditions for Natura 2000 sites, covered 39.7% of the Slovenian territory, which is nearly six times as much as in 1992. The surface area has increased mostly owing to Natura 2000 sites being designated in 2004, while in 2008 the increase was a consequence of the designation of those areas which, according to the European Commission, fulfil the conditions for Special Protected Areas, but had not been defined as Natura sites. Nature protection conditions must be met and/or nature protection consent must be given for any and all interventions in these areas.
Protected areas cover slightly less than 13% of Slovenia’s surface area. The largest and the oldest protected area is Triglav National Park with almost 84.000 ha. Since 2002 four new landscape or regional parks have been designated.
Natura 2000 sites were established in 2004 and occupy almost 7203 km2 or 35.5% of the Slovenian territory. Additional areas that according to the European Commission fulfil the conditions for Special Protection Areas, the so-called SPA add-ons, which occupy an additional 1.7% of the surface area, were designated in May 2008.
14,970 valuable elements of nature on the Slovenian territory have been given the status of a valuable natural feature, 9,083 of which are subterranean caves. Interventions to and activities on valuable natural features may only be executed in the absence of other spatial or technical possibilities.