OKOLSJKI KAZALCI

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Neutral

In the period 1990–2013, the most notable reduction was recorded in SO2 emissions, followed by NMVOC emissions, while the slightest reduction was recorded in NOx, NH3 and PM2.5 emissions. The overall reduction in emissions resulted in the reduction of acidifying substance emissions, ozone precursors and particulate matter. NOx is the only substance present in substantial concentrations in those three groups. The main source of NOx emissions is transport, followed by electricity and heat production.

Bad

The level of energy intensity in Slovenia is high and stopped declining in the period 2008–2011. A decline has been observed again over the past three years, with a particularly encouraging reduction in 2014. The long term trend of approaching the average of the EU-28 shows that it is happening too slowly. 

Good

In 2012, total energy consumption decreased by 3.4%, making it the lowest since 2003. Energy consumption reached its peak in 2008. The share of liquid fuels was highest, followed by nuclear energy, solid fuels, renewable energy sources and gaseous fuels. In 2012, only the share of renewable energy sources increased, while the average annual growth of other fuels declined. Total energy consumption growth in Slovenia after 2000 exceeded that of the EU-27.

Good

In 2015, renewables accounted for 16.6% of total energy consumption. In comparison to the previous year, their share was lower due to a considerably lower overall discharge of rivers compared to 2014.

Neutral

Energy prices increased in the period 2008–2014. In the same period, the highest increase was recorded in the price of electricity (37%) for households, followed by the price of petrol NMB 95 (34%), the price of heating oil (32%), natural gas for industry (25%), diesel fuel D2 (24%), natural gas for households (21%), while the lowest increase (less than 4%) was recorded in the price of electricity for industry.

Neutral

In recent years, energy taxes have increased mainly due to higher excise duties and taxes. The share of tax in the price of energy in industry has reached the same level as in the price paid by households. In Slovenia, taxes on transport fuels and electricity were below the EU-27 average, while taxes on natural gas in industry and households were above that average, exceeded only by Austria, Italy, Denmark and Sweden. 

 

Good

It is estimated that in Slovenia, more than EUR 324 million of subsidies were allocated in the energy sector in 2014 (EUR 212 million expressed in constant prices with 2000 as a reference year). In 2014, subsidies for energy generation from fossil fuels, which have the most harmful impact on the environment, and for the use of fossil fuels, represented 37% of all subsidies in the energy sector, while in 2005, the share of such subsidies was 74%.

Neutral

In Slovenia, external costs of electricity production, which are generated as a consequence of the impact of electricity production on the environment, are between 1.5 and 4  €c2000/kWh. Despite increasing environmental awareness, the price of electricity still does not reflect all external costs. Due to incorrect price signals, received by consumers and electricity producers, energy resources in Slovenia remain used in a non-optimal way.

Neutral

The energy import dependency of Slovenia was reduced in the period 2009–2011, but it increased by 2 percentage points in 2012. The most problematic of this dependency is the import of gaseous fuels, as Slovenia is heavily dependent on imports from Russia and Algeria.  

 

Good

For many decades, growing stock per hectare and annual gross increment have been constantly rising in Slovenia. Over the past 60 years, they increased by more than 120%. The amount of felling depends not only on natural conditions but also on socio-economic factors, which is why it has been changing through the decades and today amounts to 50% of the annual increment.