Environmental indicators in Slovenia

Environmental indicators are based on graphs, maps and assessments and as such present environmental trends in Slovenia. The indicators represent one of the four pillars of our environmental reporting, and are prepared in accordance with the Environmental Protection Act. The Environmental Indicators in Slovenia website enables users to browse among 180 indicators. They are based on numerical data and they indicate the state, characteristics and trends of environmental development in Slovenia. They are prepared using a systematic approach based on data and monitoring, as shown in the information pyramid.

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Types of farming on agricultural holdings have a direct impact on various processes of soil degradation. These processes can be reduced by soil coverage with crops and harvest residues. Soil coverage primarily depends on the crop rotation. In Slovenia, the coverage in the period 1992–2008 was rather constant (between 62.7 and 73.1%). However, a gradual upward trend in soil coverage has been noted. The storage capacity for organic fertilisers is dominated by a combined storage of solid dung and liquid cattle manure, and most farms provide storage of the latter for more than six months.


Slovenian groundwater bodies most polluted with nitrates are those with intergranular (alluvium) aquifers, particularly in north-eastern Slovenia. Groundwater in karst and fractured aquifers is less burdened with nitrates due to geographical conditions, low population density and less agricultural land. In the period 1998–2018, the average annual levels of nitrates in water bodies in the Savinja, Drava and Mura basins show a statistically significant downward trend.


In Slovenia, the majority of energy consumption in agriculture is gas oil used as a propellant for agricultural machinery (56.2%), followed by energy for the production of mineral nitrogen fertilizers (36.4%) and electric energy (4.4%). Compared to the average of 28 European countries, in 2016 Slovenia has 9.5% more direct energy consumption per hectare of utilized agricultural area and 13.5% less indirect energy use in agriculture.


In the period 1992–2017 gross and net nitrogen budget in Slovenian agriculture decreased. Trend analysis for this period shows that gross nitrogen budget decreased by 44 % and net budget by 72 %. Both decreases indicate better management of nitrogen and, consequently, reduced emissions of nitrogen compounds into the environment. On average, 52% of nitrogen input was taken up by crops in the period 1992–2003. This proportion increased to 66% in the period 2004–2017 and even exceeded 70 % in individual years.


In Slovenia, the breeding of indigenous domestic animals is becoming less attractive, and out of 12 indigenous breed 11 are endangered. The Carniolan honey bee being the only exception. Eleven out of 14 traditional breeds is also endangered. The share of introduced animal breeds and cross-breeds with introduced breeds has been increasing. The breeds and races where the adaptation to natural conditions is the strongest are the most successful with defying the introduced breeds.


Since 2011, the total number of varieties listed in the National List of Varieties for stubble cereals (common wheat), maize and potato decreased, while the total number of oilseed varieties increased, also due to domestic varieties listed as conservation varieties. For other crops the number of varieties remained unchanged. For rye, triticale and oats, the share of the five most common varieties is 100%. For other crops, the share of five most common varieties for each species range from 30% for potatoes to 80% for barley.