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Energy prices increased in the period 2008–2014. In the same period, the highest increase was recorded in the price of electricity (37%) for households, followed by the price of petrol NMB 95 (34%), the price of heating oil (32%), natural gas for industry (25%), diesel fuel D2 (24%), natural gas for households (21%), while the lowest increase (less than 4%) was recorded in the price of electricity for industry.


This indicator shows final prices of fuels, including all taxes. Electricity prices are expressed in Euros per kilowatt hour (EUR/KWh), gas prices in Euros per gigajoule (EUR/GJ) and liquid fuels in Euros per litre of fuel (EUR/l).

Prices of electricity and natural gas are final prices for typical groups of industrial and household consumers. Prices for industrial consumers do not include VAT.


Charts

Figure EN20-1: Real growth in electricity prices for industry and households (expressed in EUR 1995), Slovenia, 1995-2007 and 2008-2014*
Sources: 

Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, 2015

*Comment: The prices for period 2008 - 2014 are calculated with new methodology and are not completely comparable with the prices for previous period.

Show data
electricity - households electricity - industry Diesel D2 - transport fuel oil - heating natural gas - industry Petrol NMB 95 - transport natural gas - households
1995-2007 % 11.3 5.1 73.4 96.9 60.4 70.1 88.9
2008-2014 % 37.3 4.3 24 32.1 25.2 34 20.8
Figure EN20-2: The real price of electricity in industry and households (expressed in EUR 1995), Slovenia, 1992-2014
Sources: 

Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, 2015

*Comment:The prices for period 2008 - 2014 are calculated with new methodology and are not completely comparable with the prices for previous period

Show data
1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
electricity - industry EUR/kWh 0.046 0.052 0.051 0.056 0.058 0.06 0.069 0.067 0.054 0.054
electricity - households EUR/kWh 0.06 0.071 0.069 0.075 0.076 0.077 0.09 0.088 0.089 0.089
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
electricity - industry EUR/kWh 0.051 0.049 0.051 0.051 0.053 0.059 0.058 0.059 0.062 0.062
electricity - households EUR/kWh 0.087 0.084 0.085 0.086 0.086 0.083 0.086 0.098 0.103 0.105
2012 2013 2014
electricity - industry EUR/kWh 0.061 0.062 0.06
electricity - households EUR/kWh 0.112 0.115 0.118
Figure EN20-3: The real price of natural gas in industry and households (expressed in EUR 1995), Slovenia, 1995 - 2014*
Sources: 

Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, 2015

*Comment: The prices for period 2008 - 2014 are calculated with new methodology and are not completely comparable with the prices for previous period

Show data
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
natural gas - industry EUR/GJ 3.971 3.576 3.652 5.47 4.17 4.779 7.444 6.167 4.455 4.034
natural gas - households EUR/GJ 5.754 5.338 5.335 6.299 5.598 6.479 9.403 8.312 8.325 8.097
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
natural gas - industry EUR/GJ 4.921 6.503 6.371 7.593 8.808 8.66 9.014 11.602 9.782 9.51
natural gas - households EUR/GJ 8.632 10.606 10.868 11.641 13.275 11.875 13.467 16.032 13.249 14.061
Figure EN20-4: The real price of liquid fuels (expressed in euro 1995), Slovenia, 1995 - 2014*
Sources: 

Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, 2015

*Comment: The prices for period 2008 - 2014 are calculated with new methodology and are not completely comparable with the prices for previous period

Show data
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
Diesel D2 - transport EUR/l 0.404 0.381 0.405 0.436 0.477 0.58 0.632 0.559 0.591 0.581
Petrol NMB 95 - transport EUR/l 0.434 0.409 0.424 0.477 0.491 0.54 0.634 0.649 0.67 0.662
Fuel oil - heating EUR/l 0.212 0.2 0.226 0.23 0.23 0.323 0.39 0.316 0.355 0.329
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Diesel D2 - transport EUR/l 0.682 0.747 0.7 0.792 0.685 0.805 0.898 0.944 0.995 0.982
Petrol NMB 95 - transport EUR/l 0.685 0.75 0.737 0.795 0.658 0.85 0.928 0.998 1.071 1.065
Fuel oil - heating EUR/l 0.407 0.477 0.417 0.54 0.385 0.481 0.596 0.715 0.737 0.714
Figure EN20-5: Growth in real prices of electricity, natural gas and petroleum products and the growth of the individual components of the final price
Sources: 

Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, 2015

Show data
1995-2007 1995-2000 2008-2014
Electricity: households - retail price % 0.9 3.5 5.4
Electricity: households - price before taxes % 0.2 1.9 3.5
Electricity: households - taxes (with VAT) % 6.1 15.9 11.6
Natural gas: households: retail price % 5.4 2.4 3.2
Natural gas: households: price before taxes % 3.7 -1.9 2.5
Natural gas: households: taxes (with VAT) % 19.9 40.7 5.5
Diesel D2: transport - retail price % 4.7 7.5 3.6
Diesel D2: transport - price before taxes % 4.5 3.5 1.9
Diesel D2: transport - taxes (with VAT) % 4.9 10.8 6.1
Petrol NMB 95: transport - retail price % 4.5 4.5 5
Petrol NMB 95: transport - price before taxes % 2.7 -1.5 3
Petrol NMB 95: transport - taxes (with VAT) % 6.1 9.4 6.8
Fuel oil EL - retail price % 5.8 8.8 4.8
Fuel oil EL - price before taxes % 4.2 2.7 3.2
Fuel oil EL - taxes (with VAT) % 13.2 34.2 9
Figure EN20-6: The share of taxes and base price in the retail price of each fuel, Slovenia, 2014
Sources: 

Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, 2015

Show data
Retail price Taxes
Electricity: industry % 0.7 0.3
Natural gas: industry % 0.7 0.3
Electricity: households % 0.7 0.3
Natural gas: households % 0.8 0.2
Diesel D2: transport % 0.5 0.5
Petrol NMB 95: transport % 0.4 0.6
Fuel oil EL % 0.7 0.3
Figure EN20-7: Price comparison of electricity, Slovenia and EU-28, 2014
Sources: 

Eurostat, 2015

Show data
EU-28 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES
industry % 100 87.793 60.966 66.465 174.447 133.602 74.916 102.75 98.39 94.702
households % 100 99.561 43.616 62.086 147.904 144.932 64.571 123.587 86.988 115.351
FR HR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL
industry % 73.105 76.995 136.351 151.308 92.153 95.037 70.154 75.319 125.419 72.032
households % 78.947 64.522 113.938 114.815 63.402 64.279 84.698 55.848 60.819 84.405
AT PL PT RO SI-13 SK FI SE UK
industry % 84.909 68.746 97.921 67.136 69.282 94.5 60.027 55.869 107.713
households % 96.832 68.616 108.723 60.819 79.532 74.22 74.951 90.984 98.099
Figure EN20-8: Comparison of prices of natural gases, Slovenia and EU-28, 2014
Sources: 

Eurostat, 2015

Show data
EU-28 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES
industry % 100 79.789 92.382 83.033 176.36 107.711 99.756 103.571 117.614 102.029
households % 100 90.39 67.278 78.219 122.033 94.745 68.619 103.604 110.911 133.333
FR CY LV LT LU HU NL AT PL PT
industry % 100.325 113.289 97.159 102.166 94.237 111.438 90.909 108.36 101.071 123.052
households % 105.906 66.052 67.868 69.404 71.421 48.736 114.014 101.502 69.567 144.494
RO SI-14 SK SE UK IT
industry % 85.992 120.373 101.786 180.657 93.943 87.013
households % 44.302 88.138 72.172 158.295 89.799 132.182
Figure EN20-9: Comparison of prices for petroleum products, Slovenia and EU-28, 2014
Sources: 

Eurostat, 2015; Oil Bulletin, 2015

Show data
AT BE BG HR CY CZ DE DK EE ES
NMB % 92.145 106.622 90.643 95.418 90.748 105.75 103.606 113.486 88.228 98.604
D2 % 95.4 99.136 97.336 103.608 95.479 99.765 95.822 107.263 95.758 98.048
FI FR EL HU IE IT LT LU LV MT
NMB % 96.703 112.278 113.789 92.089 93.236 105.596 91.254 89.519 118.825 89.19
D2 % 97.157 110.787 98.62 92.303 100.949 105.87 92.981 86.832 118.563 92.072
NL PL PT RO SE SI-14 SK UK EU-28
NMB % 98.947 116.469 87.44 106.574 99.359 109.98 85.704 107.796 100
D2 % 97.332 103.057 91.964 98.906 98.048 114.356 93.542 119.047 100

Goals

One of the goals of Slovenian energy policy as defined in the Resolution on the National Energy Programme (ReNEP) was to fully open the electricity market, which has been accomplished. A series of other mechanisms to improve competitiveness by indirectly influencing energy prices was foreseen.

 

Energy prices are largely shaped by the market, except for the services of transmission and distribution of electricity, where prices are regulated by an independent regulator. Retail prices of petroleum products are regulated as well, adapting to a reference price on the international fuel market in accordance with a model. National policy has a direct influence on final prices through tax policy.

 

Minimal excise duty rates for energy products are defined at the EU level.

 


The absolute level of energy prices and their fluctuations have both a short and a long term effect on total energy consumption and dictate changes in the demand for different types of fuel. Growth in energy prices stimulates final consumers to reduce their energy consumption, which reduces negative impacts on the environment. Relative changes in prices of interchangeable energy products influence fuel switching.

Opening the markets is intended to ensure competitive energy supply, particularly between industrial consumers, to increase the efficiency of operation of energy companies, improve transparency of energy supply and energy markets and improve energy services that are available to consumers.

Compared to 1995, the increase in prices of energy products was significant in real terms. The main reason for this was the increase in prices of fuels on international markets. In 2006, only electricity prices remained relatively unchanged compared to 1995. In 2008, they too surpassed the 1995 prices. In the shaping of electricity prices, the most significant impact was felt from the introduction and opening of markets, changes of tax rates and, in recent years, fluctuation of prices on the wider European market.

 

Electricity

After 1992, electricity prices in Slovenia continued to increase until 1998, primarily with the intention to reach a level that would cover business and external costs of electricity generation and adapt to the gradual introduction of shaping energy prices on the basis of market principles. After the initial introduction and opening of the market in Slovenia, electricity prices in industry dropped and remained stable until 2005. After 2006, they began increasing again in real terms, largely as a consequence of the fluctuation of prices on the wider EU market, where they increased due to higher demand, the impact of the value of emission allowances and high prices of petroleum products on the global market.

The 4.3% increase of retail electricity prices for industrial consumers in the period 2008–2014 was largely a consequence of higher excise tax, as the price before taxes was even lower than in 2008. In 2014, retail prices decreased by 1.0% compared to the preceding year, while the price before tax was 0.5% lower than a year earlier.

Electricity prices for households increased by almost 20% in the period 1995–2000. The increase can be attributed to a raised tax rate and higher energy prices (see Figure 5). On 1 July 2007, the electricity market opened to household consumers. Although electricity prices for households did not reflect market prices before the opening of the market, no significant price changes occurred in 2008. However, prices increased by almost 37.3% in the period 2008–2014. Compared to the preceding year, electricity prices for households increased by 3% in 2014, primarily due to increased tax fees and contributions.

Electricity prices in Slovenia remain below the EU-28 level. In 2014, they were 20% and 31% below the EU-28 average for households and industry, respectively.

 

Natural gas

While the growth in natural gas prices in Slovenia was moderate until 1999, it intensified significantly in the period 1999–2000. The reasons behind the growth before and after 2000 are varying. In the period 1995–2000, the main reason for the increase in natural gas prices was the increased tax charge (increased share of taxes in the final price of natural gas). After 2000, a notable fluctuation of prices for households as well as industrial consumers can be observed.

 

In the period 2008–2014, the prices of natural gas for industrial consumers increased by almost 25% in real terms, while the prices for households increased by almost 21%. In 2014, the prices of natural gas for household consumers increased by 6% compared to a year earlier, while the prices for industrial consumers decreased by 1.2%. The main reason for the aforementioned increase was a higher base price of natural gas as a consequence of general conditions on international natural gas markets. The base price of natural gas for household consumers in 2014 was almost 5% higher than in 2013. The decrease in the prices of natural gas for industrial consumers, however, was a consequence of lower base prices, which were 3.1% lower than in 2013.

The prices of natural gas for industrial consumers in Slovenia are 20% above the EU-28 level, while the prices for household consumers are 12% below the EU-28 average.

 

Petroleum products and fuel oil

Slovenia is one of the few EU countries that fully regulate the prices of petroleum products. It has a prescribed methodology for shaping base prices of fuels, while the state also influences the final prices by defining the excise tax rate. The basic purpose of the introduction of controlled prices of petroleum products was to protect consumers from oligopolistic price setting by fuel traders as well as to enable implementation of protection measures against the impact of world oil prices on inflation in Slovenia. In the period 1995–2007, prices of petroleum products were increasing in real terms, with an average annual growth rate of over 4.5%. However, the main reason for growth before and after 2000 is not the same. In the first period, increasing prices were primarily a consequence of higher taxes on petroleum products (introduction of excise tax and VAT), while the reason for growth of retail prices of petroleum products in recent years is largely a consequence of increasing base fuel prices due to high prices of oil on global markets. In 2014, a slight drop in prices of petroleum products was noted compared to a year earlier. The price of D2 diesel fuel decreased by 1.4%, the price of NMB 95 gasoline fuel decreased by 0.5%, while the price of fuel oil was 3.1% lower. In 2014, the share of taxes in the price of D2 diesel fuel amounted to 50.5%, the share in the price of NMB 95 gasoline fuel was almost 60%, while the share in the retail price of fuel oil was 30.6%.

 

In 2014, retail prices of NMB 95 unleaded gasoline were 10% above the EU-28 average, while prices of D2 diesel were 14% below the EU-28 average.