KAZALCI OKOLJA

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Key message
Neutral

Intensity of agriculture in Slovenia is moderate, directed mostly at improving labour intensity in agricultural production, i.e. reducing the input of labour per unit of area or product. The number of livestock units (LU) per hectare of utilised agricultural area, as the aggregate indicator of production intensity, is stable; in the 2000–2020 period, the stocking density, like in other EU countries, has slightly decreased. Due to economic pressures (market-price relationships) the agricultural holdings are forced to reduce production costs and increase productivity and farming intensity. The intensity of agricultural production in Slovenia in the period of 2000–2020 moderately increased. The increase is the result of the continued reduction in the number of agricultural holdings and the concentration of agricultural production.


The intensity of agriculture is an indicator that reflects the level of increase in productivity of agricultural production, which is expressed per unit of agricultural area or per head of animal. It consists of four indicators for the selected key production orientations in Slovenia. For livestock production, it is calculated as the number of head of livestock units (LU) per hectare of utilized agricultural area (UAA) and the average milk production per dairy cow. For crop production, it is calculated as the average yield of wheat and spelt per hectare of UAA and the average yield of maize per hectare of UAA.


Charts

Figure KM04-1: Intensity of stocking and production: the average yield of wheat and maize per hectare, milk yield and number of livestock units per hectare of utilised agricultural area in the period 2000–2019
Sources: 

SORS, 2021; calculations by AIS

Show data

Wheat and spelt [t/ha]

Maize [t/ha]

Stocking rate [LU/ha UAA]

Milk yield [t/cow]

2000

4.25

5.88

0.97

4.63

2001

4.60

5.41

np

4.81

2002

4.89

8.16

np

5.20

2003

3.45

5.08

0.94

5.06

2004

4.53

7.78

np

4.85

2005

4.70

8.29

0.87

5.48

2006

4.19

6.93

np

5.71

2007

4.16

7.54

0.89

5.73

2008

4.53

7.32

np

5.76

2009

3.96

7.84

np

5.53

2010

4.80

8.54

0.89

5.52

2011

5.18

8.69

np

5.52

2012

5.44

7.08

np

5.59

2013

4.35

5.41

0.84

5.43

2014

5.23

9.15

np

5.72

2015

5.11

8.97

np

5.60

2016

5.19

9.51

0.87

6.02

2017

5.03

7.11

np

5.95

2018

4.38

9.45

np

6.12

2019

5.23

9.27

np

6.18

2020

5.80

10.79

0.86

np

Figure KM04-2: Agricultural holdings in Slovenia by number of livestock in 2000, 2010, 2016 and 2020
Sources: 

SORS, 2021; calculations by AIS

Show data

2000 [number]

2010 [number]

2016 [number]

2020 [number]

Number of holdings - 2000 [number]

Number of holdings - 2010 [number]

Number of holdings - 2016 [number]

Number of holdings - 2016 [number]

Livestock breeding - 2000 [number]

Livestock breeding - 2010 [number]

Livestock breeding - 2016 [number]

Livestock breeding - 2016 [number]

Cattle

8.91

13.08

14.82

16.72

56097

36119

32805

28485

499546

472333

486014

476382

Pigs

13.49

14.45

12.07

19.30

44623

26441

22649

12198

601953

382031

273359

235473

Sheep

22.18

22.28

21.94

22.80

4330

6181

6150

5016

96027

137737

134929

114365

Goats

6.15

8.27

8.39

8.12

4775

4214

4598

3374

29385

34864

38564

27385

LU

6.07

7.19

7.51

9.09

77452

58648

55782

44974

470498

421553

418684

408683

Figure KM04-3: Agricultural holdings in Slovenia by average production area of wheat and maize in the period 2000–2016
Sources: 

SORS, 2021; calculations by AIS

Show data

Wheat and spelt [ha per holding]

Maize [ha per holding]

Wheat and spelt [number of holdings]

Wheat and spelt [ha]

Maize [number of holdings]

Maize [ha]

2000

1.24

1.07

30905

38257

44826

48009

2003

1.40

1.22

25457

35585

36141

44137

2005

1.36

1.24

22100

30059

34212

42369

2007

1.52

1.42

21014

32040

28844

40905

2010

1.71

1.47

18690

31946

24795

36433

2013

1.77

1.72

18635

32959

24670

42375

2016

2.05

1.74

16086

33016

21242

36985

Figure KM04-4: Number of livestock units (LU) per hectare of utilised agricultural area (UAA) in Slovenia and selected EU countries in 2000, 2010, 2016
Sources: 

Eurostat, 2021; calculations by AIS

Show data

LU per ha UAA - 2000 [LU/ha UAA]

LU per ha UAA - 2010 [LU/ha UAA]

LU per ha UAA - 2016 [LU/ha UAA]

LU - 2000 [number]

LU - 2010 [number]

LU - 2016 [number]

UAA - 2000 [ha]

UAA - 2010 [ha]

UAA - 2016 [ha]

Belgium

3.13

2.80

2.79

4359330

3798680

3772750

1393780

1358020

1354250

Slovenia

0.97

1.07

1.05

611100

518480

512120

485879

482650

488400

Austria

0.79

0.87

0.89

2673930

2517170

2432030

3388230

2878170

2726890

Greece

0.71

0.46

0.43

2540110

2406520

2102870

3583190

5177510

4856780

Figure KM04-5: Average milk yield of cows in Slovenia and selected EU countries in the period 2000–2019
Sources: 

Eurostat, 2021

Show data

Dairy cows - Slovenia [number]

Milk production - Slovenia [t]

Slovenia [kg/cow]

Dairy cows - Austria [number]

Milk production - Austria [t]

Austria [kg/cow]

Dairy cows - Belgium [number]

Milk production - Belgium [t]

Belgium [kg/cow]

Dairy cows - Greece [number]

Milk production - Greece [t]

Greece [kg/cow]

2000

140240

649000

4627.78

621000

3233100

5206.28

629400

3425000

5441.69

180000

789300

4385

2001

135810

653000

4808.19

597980

3299600

5517.91

611320

3357000

5491.40

172000

778100

4523.84

2002

139980

686000

4900.70

588970

3292200

5589.76

591010

3160000

5346.78

152000

758200

4988.16

2003

130710

664400

5083.01

557880

3229900

5789.60

572140

3127000

5465.45

149000

767800

5153.02

2004

134010

650400

4853.37

537950

3137300

5831.95

570610

3120000

5467.83

150000

762200

5081.33

2005

120270

659030

5479.59

534420

3113700

5826.32

548150

3082000

5622.55

152260

761300

5000

2006

112510

642260

5708.47

527420

3146700

5966.21

531910

2917000

5484.01

167750

763800

4553.20

2007

117170

666470

5688.06

524500

3155100

6015.44

524290

2943000

5613.31

150000

774000

5160

2008

113450

653680

5761.83

530230

3195900

6027.38

517770

2892000

5585.49

154000

787200

5111.69

2009

113100

625520

5530.68

532980

3229800

6059.89

517680

2996000

5787.36

145000

752800

5191.72

2010

109470

603930

5516.85

532740

3257700

6114.99

517740

3111000

6008.81

144000

743660

5164.31

2011

109070

601590

5515.63

527390

3307130

6270.75

510650

3151000

6170.57

130000

757000

5823.08

2012

111020

620940

5593.05

523370

3382100

6462.16

503540

3116000

6188.19

132000

765500

5799.24

2013

109570

595500

5434.88

529560

3393060

6407.32

515990

3529000

6839.28

130000

730600

5620

2014

107840

616580

5717.54

537740

3493860

6497.30

519090

3710000

7147.12

135000

769000

5696.30

2015

112840

631670

5597.93

534100

3537760

6623.78

528780

3826000

7235.52

111000

770000

6936.94

2016

107840

649680

6024.48

539870

3627610

6719.41

530590

3969000

7480.35

106000

706000

6660.38

2017

108830

647990

5954.15

543420

3712730

6832.16

519160

4110000

7916.63

97000

670000

6907.22

2018

102710

628930

6123.36

532870

3821190

7170.96

529250

4244000

8018.89

95000

654800

6892.63

2019

100840

623020

6178.30

524070

3781340

7215.33

537960

4351000

8087.96

86000

659380

7667.21

Figure KM04-6: Average production of wheat in Slovenia, and selected EU countries in the period 2000–2020
Sources: 

Eurostat, 2021; calculations by AIS

Show data

Wheat and spelt area - Slovenia [ha]

Wheat harvest - Slovenia [t]

Slovenia [t/ha]

Wheat area - Austria[ha]

Wheat harvest - Austria[t]

Austria [t/ha]

Wheat area - Belgium [ha]

Wheat harvest - Belgium [t]

Belgium [t/ha]

Wheat area - Greece [ha]

Wheat harvest - Greece [t]

Greece [t/ha]

2000

38260

162560

4.25

293800

1313000

4.47

213000

1687600

7.92

829290

1858860

2.24

2001

39340

181080

4.60

287700

1508300

5.24

181000

1457400

8.05

931080

1827500

1.96

2002

35730

174870

4.89

288800

1434300

4.97

203000

1675100

8.25

890310

1782410

2.00

2003

35590

122920

3.45

272000

1191400

4.38

199000

1692900

8.51

851090

1629770

1.91

2004

32390

146830

4.53

290200

1718800

5.92

212000

1913100

9.02

838860

1773860

2.11

2005

30060

141290

4.70

289000

1453100

5.03

214000

1799400

8.41

868740

1761060

2.03

2006

32080

134450

4.19

284600

1396300

4.91

210000

1719500

8.19

685170

1574900

2.30

2007

32040

133340

4.16

293000

1399300

4.78

210000

1645300

7.83

678050

1389680

2.05

2008

35410

160300

4.53

296800

1689700

5.69

224000

1944300

8.68

657370

1939360

2.95

2009

34530

136900

3.96

309100

1523400

4.93

211500

1978100

9.35

781990

2140480

2.74

2010

31950

153480

4.80

302850

1517810

5.01

213000

1912800

8.98

661050

2025270

3.06

2011

29670

153580

5.18

304330

1781840

5.85

200710

1687730

8.41

543700

1850060

3.40

2012

34590

188070

5.44

308180

1275500

4.14

217100

1834600

8.45

563200

1567570

2.78

2013

31760

138240

4.35

297290

1597710

5.37

201860

1843600

9.13

579270

1643430

2.84

2014

33120

173240

5.23

304650

1804020

5.92

210760

1918980

9.11

545380

1663780

3.05

2015

30730

157060

5.11

302970

1725740

5.70

221780

2076260

9.36

488200

1139750

2.33

2016

31460

163170

5.19

317760

1977040

6.22

215720

1446580

6.71

537590

1594880

2.97

2017

28020

140960

5.03

297280

1442770

4.85

197590

1702720

8.62

415950

1023900

2.46

2018

27820

121900

4.38

294290

1375060

4.67

195690

1652250

8.44

404490

1072940

2.65

2019

26730

139810

5.23

278340

1606220

5.77

203760

1895770

9.30

350490

979220

2.79

2020

27270

158050

5.80

279020

1662400

5.96

195400

1719200

8.80

331730

842400

2.54

Figure KM04-7: Average production of grain maize in Slovenia, and selected EU countries in the period 2000–2020
Sources: 

Eurostat, 2021; calculations by AIS

Show data

Maize area - Slovenia [ha]

Maize harvest - Slovenia [t]

Slovenia [t/ha]

Maize area - Austria [ha]

Maize harvest - Austria [t]

Austria [t/ha]

Maize area - Belgium [ha]

Maize harvest - Belgium [t]

Belgium [t/ha]

Maize area - Greece [ha]

Maize harvest - Greece [t]

Greece [t/ha]

2000

48010

282390

5.88

164100

1617500

9.86

35783

397400

11.11

208250

1850370

8.89

2001

47570

257550

5.41

171400

1493000

8.71

40555

460900

11.36

210390

1900260

9.03

2002

45530

371370

8.16

172200

1666600

9.68

47392

530700

11.20

225470

2004510

8.89

2003

44140

224220

5.08

173300

1452100

8.38

52723

554700

10.52

249020

2205520

8.86

2004

46000

357620

7.77

178700

1653700

9.25

52200

637800

12.22

251410

2210400

8.79

2005

42370

351170

8.29

167200

1724800

10.32

54300

634100

11.68

241420

2168930

8.98

2006

39840

276110

6.93

159300

1471700

9.24

56500

575900

10.19

179130

1646630

9.19

2007

40910

308260

7.54

170900

1696500

9.93

58200

698900

12.01

190340

1927540

10.13

2008

43700

319900

7.32

194100

2147200

11.06

72015

858800

11.93

240100

2472140

10.30

2009

38610

302600

7.84

178500

1890500

10.59

66700

808100

12.12

235260

2432870

10.34

2010

36430

311120

8.54

201140

1955990

9.72

69800

745900

10.69

181050

1912150

10.56

2011

40190

349030

8.68

217100

2453130

11.30

72030

859690

11.94

181880

2195790

12.07

2012

39170

277360

7.08

219700

2351370

10.70

67200

733600

10.92

183950

2009790

10.93

2013

41860

226630

5.41

201920

1639020

8.12

74170

837600

11.29

183010

2145250

11.72

2014

38330

350730

9.15

216320

2334390

10.79

62830

778570

12.39

159780

1824140

11.42

2015

37740

338710

8.97

188730

1637910

8.68

58400

692960

11.87

152050

1542300

10.14

2016

36390

346210

9.51

195250

2179590

11.16

52100

480730

9.23

139480

1448650

10.39

2017

38290

272180

7.11

209480

2075980

9.91

49000

608670

12.42

132490

1306510

9.86

2018

37080

350490

9.45

209900

2130340

10.15

53990

443000

8.21

113450

1205980

10.63

2019

38880

360360

9.27

220690

2298880

10.42

48640

529600

10.89

115500

1233620

10.68

2020

39850

430020

10.79

212600

2411930

11.34

52100

546600

10.49

114370

1131160

9.89

Figure KM04-8: Number of LU per hectare of UAA by municipalities
Chart note: 

Data from agricultural holdings survey 2010; date of data collection: 26. 10. 2016


Goals

World agriculture, and also European and Slovenian agriculture, is once again facing the challenge of ensuring global food security. According to United Nations forecasts, the population will increase to 9 billion by 2050. In order to feed such a large number of people, it would be necessary to double the current volume of agricultural production. Due to limited natural resources, such an increase in production will increase the pressure on arable land and the availability of water, but we can also expect greater negative effects on the environment due to the higher intensity of production. Agricultural intensity is a process that can be one of the biggest pressures in uncontrolled conditions on nature and the environment, so there are several conflicting objectives in this regard:

  • restructuring in agriculture, increasing productivity and increasing the competitiveness of agriculture (rural development program 2014–2020),
  • eradicating hunger, achieving food security and improved nutrition, and promoting sustainable agriculture (Agenda 2030),
  • protection, conservation and improvement of the European Union's natural capital (7th EAP),
  • the protection of European Union citizens against environmental pressures and risks to health and well-being (7th Environmental Action Program).

According to provisional data from the latest Census of Agricultural Holdings, in 2020 there were 67,927 agricultural holdings in Slovenia. As many as two thirds of them were engaged in animal husbandry, with more than half (63%) of them engaged in cattle breeding. The number of livestock farms decreased by almost half (-42%) in the period 2000–2020.

The average Slovenian livestock farm breed 9.1 LU in 2020, which is 50% more than in 2000. As in other EU countries, the livestock density is decreasing in Slovenia as well, only in the period 2000–2016 it decreased by 17%. The presentation of the number of large livestock

According to the provisional data from the latest Census of Agricultural Holdings, in 2020 there were 67,927 agricultural holdings in Slovenia. As many as two thirds of them were engaged in animal husbandry, with more than half (63%) of them engaged in cattle breeding. The number of livestock farms decreased by almost half (-42%) in the period 2000–2020. The stocking density at the municipal level in 2010 shows a relatively atypical and dispersed spatial distribution.

Despite a very rapid decline in dairy-oriented holdings and a slightly less pronounced decline in the number of dairy cows, total production volume continues to grow with regular annual fluctuations. The reason is a marked increase in the concentration of milk production - the average number of dairy cows per agricultural holding in the period 2000–2016 increased by 114%, while the intensity of production also increased.

The average milk production per dairy cow (milk yield) in the period 2000–2019 in Slovenia increased by 1,553 kg or by 34%. Over the same period, average milk yield increased by 39% in Austria, by 49% in Belgium and by as much as 75% in Greece.

With almost 6,200 kg of milk per cow in 2019, Slovenia lags far behind some other Member States of the European Union, where the processes of concentration and intensification of production are much faster.

Wheat and maize for grain are the most important crops in Slovenia, and in 2016 16,086 (wheat and spelt) and 24,670 (maize) agricultural holdings were engaged in their production. Between 2000 and 2016, the number of agricultural holdings engaged in wheat and spelt production decreased by 48% and those engaged in maize production by 53%. In the observed period the total area under wheat and spelt decreased by 14% while in the case of maize, the areas decreased by 23%. The concentration of production per holding has greatly increased. The intensity of wheat production, measured by the amount of yield per hectare, in Slovenia is at the level of the long-term average and is 0,51 tonne lower than in Austria and as much as 3,8 tonne per hectare lower than in Belgium. The yield per hectare in Slovenia has not changed significantly for several years. It is similar with maize, except that the annual fluctuation is slightly bigger due to climatic factors.

Slovenian agriculture is facing an unfavourable ownership and size structure, which largely prevents an increase in the intensity and competitiveness of agricultural production. Some agricultural policy measures and the use of new technological solutions (land operations, optimization of feed rations, lower use of plant protection products, improvement of soil properties etc.) can contribute to increasing the intensity, while reducing negative pressures on the environment.



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