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In Slovenia, the level of intensification in agriculture is low, focusing mostly on improving labour intensity in agricultural production, i.e. reducing the input of labour per unit of area or product. The number of livestock units (LU) per ha of utilised agricultural area as the most aggregate indicator of production intensity is stable; in the 1997-2003 period, the stocking density even decreased slightly. In labour-intensive types of farming (dairying), the intensity, which is measured by the average milk yield, is moderately increasing, and in labour-extensive types of farming (production of wheat or maize), the intensity has been at the same average level for a long time.


Intensification of agriculture is a process which decreases production costs per unit of agricultural product. Production costs are the function of the cost of labour, the land and capital. Capital-intensive agriculture develops where availability of labour and, most of all, land, is limited (Belgium, the Netherlands). Countries with limited capital and land have developed labour-intensive agriculture (India, China), while countries with limited capital and labour have developed agriculture that requires extensive land (Argentina). Each of these three forms of intensification has different impacts on the environment, nature and social structure of rural areas.

The indicator for the definition of intensification is presented by:
- the share and trend of agricultural holdings engaged in livestock breeding or wheat and maize production,
- stocking density or number of livestock units (LU) per hectare of utilised agricultural area (UAA),
- milk or wheat and grain maize production trends per hectare.

The indicator is defined and calculated in order to complement the indicator of specialisation and diversification in agriculture. We were unable to present the structure and development trends of holdings and their areas by cost types due to deficient and inadequate data on direct costs (for fertilizers, protection products) for individual production types (FADN accountancy data).


Charts

Figure KM04-1: Agricultural holdings by number of livestock units (LU) and areas under wheat and maize – changes between 2000 and 2007
Sources: 

Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, 2002, 2008.

Show data
livestock unit area under wheat area under maize
area per holding index 2007/2000 (2000=100) 111.5 122.6 132.7
total area index 2007/2000 (2000=100) 92.1 103.2 85.2
number of holdings index 2007/2000 (2000=100) 82 54.8 64.3
Figure KM04-2: Agricultural holdings in Slovenia by number of livestock
Sources: 

Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, 2002, 2008.

Show data
sheep pigs cattle goats horses total
number of livestock per holding - 2000 number 22.2 13.5 8.9 6.2 3.1 6.1
number of livestock per holding - 2003 number 22.7 15.4 10.2 7.2 3.6 6.6
number of livestock per holding - 2005 number 22.8 14.9 10.6 7.5 3.8 6.3
number of livestock per holding - 2007 number 22.9 17.2 11.6 8.4 3.9 6.8
number of holdings - 2000 number 4330 44623 56097 4775 4634 77501
number of holdings - 2003 number 5281 39484 46736 3974 4728 68829
number of holdings - 2005 number 5747 33945 43675 4108 5128 66909
number of holdings - 2007 number 5923 31690 40842 4133 5081 63549
livestock breeding - 2000 number 96027 601953 499546 29385 14407 470498
livestock breeding - 2003 number 119631 607881 478331 28690 16879 456167
livestock breeding - 2005 number 131126 505161 461224 30826 19249 421587
livestock breeding - 2007 number 135887 544405 472363 34593 19623 433382
Figure KM04-3: Agricultural holdings in Slovenia by production of wheat and maize
Sources: 

Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, 2002, 2008.

Show data
2000 2003 2005 2007
Wheat ha per holding 1.24 1.4 1.36 1.52
Maize ha per holding 1.07 1.22 1.24 1.42
Wheat number of holdings 30857 25460 21980 20917
Wheat ha 38190 35585 29845 31861
Maize number of holdings 44826 36141 34212 28844
Maize ha 48009 44137 42369 40905
Figure KM04-4: Number of livestock units (LU) per hectare of utilised agricultural area (UAA) in Slovenia and selected countries
Sources: 

Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, 2002, 2008; Eurostat, 2008

Show data
Belgium Slovenia Austria Greece
LU per ha UAA - 2000 3.13 0.97 0.79 0.71
LU per ha UAA - 2003 2.84 0.94 0.77 0.66
LU per ha UAA - 2005 2.8 0.87 0.75 0.62
LU per ha UAA - 2007 2.76 0.89 0.78 0.61
LU - 2000 4359330 470498 2673930 2540110
LU - 2003 3956250 456167 2508220 2628970
LU - 2005 3884560 421587 2453730 2479650
LU - 2007 3787770 433382 2473240 2430620
UAA - 2000 1393780 485879 3388230 3583190
UAA - 2003 1394400 486473 3257220 3967770
UAA - 2002 1385580 485432 3266240 3983790
UAA - 2007 1374430 488774 3189110 3967770
Figure KM04-5: Average milk yield of cows in Slovenia and selected countries
Sources: 

Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, 2002, 2008, 2011; Eurostat, 2011

Show data
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
dairy cows - Slovenia number 140236 135805 139980 130711 134009 120273 112510 116391 113400 113100
milk production - Slovenia t 648628 652835 727639 661651 650400 659031 642262 666472 653700 625500
average milk production - Slovenia kg/cow 4351 4655 5358 4727 4976 4918 5340 5924 5765 5531
dairy cows - Austria number 621002 597981 588971 557877 538000 534400 527400 524500 530200 533000
milk production - Austria t 2660800 2653656 2648846 2644300 2616770 2621060 2673640 2661390 2705000 2709000
average milk production - Austria kg/cow 4285 4438 4497 4740 4864 4905 5069 5074 5102 5083
dairy cows - Belgium number 629396 611315 591006 572135 570600 548200 531900 524300 517800 517700
milk production - Belgium t 3124479 3088136 2894654 2828833 2845270 2867810 2836930 2878640 2849000 2954000
average milk production - Belgium kg/cow 4964 5052 4898 4944 4986 5231 5334 5490 5502 5706
dairy cows - Greece number 180000 172000 152000 149000 150000 152300 167800 150000 154000 145000
milk production - Greece t 669500 706000 678100 661400 687000 660000 669700 716200 690000 684000
average milk production - Greece kg/cow 3719 4105 4461 4439 4580 4334 3991 4775 4481 4717
Figure KM04-6: Average production of wheat in Slovenia, EU-27 and selected countries
Sources: 

Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, 2002, 2008, 2011; Eurostat, 2011.

Show data
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
wheat area - Slovenia ha 38190 39335 35729 35585 32385 30059 32083 32040 35413 34534
wheat harvest - Slovenia t 162559 181083 174868 122920 146829 141293 134449 133339 160297 135905
average wheat harvest - Slovenia t/ha 4.26 4.6 4.89 3.45 4.53 4.7 4.19 4.16 4.53 3.94
wheat area - EU27 000 ha 26680 26472 27055 24734 26651 26477 24859 24835
wheat harvest - EU27 000 t 132541 126062 133385 111443 149085 135179 126580 120144
average wheat harvest - EU27 t/ha 4.97 4.76 4.93 4.51 5.59 5.11 5.09 4.84
wheat area - Austria ha 293806 287777 288764 272001 290200 289000 284600 293000 296800 309000
wheat harvest - Austria t 1312962 1508283 1434208 1191380 1191380 1718800 1453100 1396300 1689700 1523400
average wheat harvest - Austria t/ha 4.47 5.24 4.97 4.38 4.11 5.95 5.11 4.77 5.69 4.93
wheat area - Belgium ha 213141 181042 202420 199319 213000 213800 210400 210000 211500
wheat harvest - Belgium t 1687618 1457396 1675000 1692900 1913100 1799400 1719500 1645300 1978100
average wheat harvest - Belgium t/ha 7.92 8.05 8.27 8.49 8.98 8.42 8.17 7.83 9.35
wheat area - Greece ha 832800 931100 890300 851300 838800 845500 685000 632000 657100 698000
wheat harvest - Greece t 1858000 1830400 1783000 1631700 1773700 1761000 1576300 1403200 1939300 1830000
average wheat harvest - Greece t/ha 2.23 1.97 2 1.92 2.11 2.08 2.3 2.22 2.95 2.62
Figure KM04-7: Average production of grain maize in Slovenia, EU-27 and selected countries
Sources: 

Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, 2002, 2008, 2011; Eurostat, 2011.

Show data
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Maize area - Slovenia ha 48009 47571 45525 44137 45996 42369 39839 40906 43698 38611
Maize harvest - Slovenia t 282393 257546 371365 224223 357621 351168 276106 308259 319902 302600
Average maize harvest - Slovenia t/ha 5.88 5.41 8.16 5.08 7.78 8.29 6.93 7.54 7.32 7.84
Maize area - EU27 000 ha 9435.2 9595.7 9360.3 9786.6 10110.3 8953.4 8511.8 8288.9
Maize harvest - EU27 000 t 51369 61061.1 59992.1 52287.2 71444.7 62795.9 55382.5 48298
Average maize harvest - EU27 t/ha 5.44 6.36 6.41 5.34 7.07 7.01 6.51 5.83
Maize area - Austria ha 164057 171420 172230 173306 178700 167200 159300 170900 194100 178500
Maize harvest - Austria t 1617535 1493010 1666605 1452054 1653700 1724800 1471700 1696500 2147200 1890500
Average maize harvest - Austria t/ha 9.86 8.71 9.68 8.38 9.25 10.32 9.24 9.93 11.06 10.59
Maize area - Belgium ha 35783 40555 47392 52723 52200 54300 56500 58200
Maize harvest - Belgium t 397375 460874 530700 554700 637800 634100 575900 698900 858800 808100
Average maize harvest - Belgium t/ha 11.11 11.36 11.2 10.52 12.22 11.68 10.19 12.01
Maize area - Greece ha 208200 210000 225300 249800 251400 241000 179000 198600 240000 240000
Maize harvest - Greece t 1850000 1900000 2002000 2205700 2210000 2169000 1646800 1767500 2472000 2352000
Average maize harvest - Greece t/ha 8.89 9.05 8.89 8.83 8.79 9 9.2 8.9 10.3 9.8
Figure KM04-8: Number of LU per ha of UAA by municipalities
Sources: 

Popis kmetijskih gospodarstev, 2000.


Goals

Past experiences show that the intensification of agriculture in uncontrolled conditions is a process which can present one of the most extensive burdens on nature and the environment. These facts have made it one of the focal themes in strategic and programme documents of the European agricultural and environmental policy. The Water and Nitrates directives are the key environmental instruments limiting the possible negative consequences of intensification in agriculture. Agri-environmental concepts also present an important element of the reform of the agricultural policy in 2003. The importance of the protection of the environment in agriculture is increasing by means of the so-called cross-compliance and introduction of other measures for the achievement of ecological standards. Farmers eligible for financial support have to observe the prescribed standards regulating the environment, safe food and well-being of animals. They must also maintain their agricultural land in compliance with good farming practice. The importance of environmental concepts and measures in the framework of the rural development policy is increasing as well. Slovenia, too, committed itself to observe these rules by planning the implementation of the agricultural policy reform.


Almost 90 % of all agricultural holdings in Slovenia are engaged in various types of livestock breeding, 60 % of which are oriented into cattle breeding. The number of farmers engaged in cattle breeding decreased by almost 10 % in the 1997–2003 period alone.

According to the latest data, an average Slovenian agricultural holding oriented into cattle breeding breeds almost 7 livestock size units, which is almost 5 % more than at the beginning of the studied period. Structural changes in the so-called stocking density (the number of livestock units per hectare of utilised agricultural area is one of the most aggregated indicators of the environmental burden) are very inexplicit due to highly dynamic changes in the total number of livestock size units, and even more so in the total utilised agricultural area. As in other EU countries, stocking density in Slovenia is decreasing; it was reduced by almost 10 % in the 1997-2003 period alone (on average, it dropped below 1 livestock unit per hectare of utilised agricultural area). The shown number of livestock units per hectare of utilised agricultural area at the municipality level indicates a relatively atypical and dispersed spatial distribution of areas with diverse stocking density.

In spite of a rapid decrease in the number of holdings oriented into dairying, and a slightly less distinct decline in the number of dairy cows on these holdings, the total extent of the production is still on the increase, regardless of annual fluctuations. The reason for this is a notable increase in the concentration of dairying – in the 1997-2003 period, the average number of cows per holding more than doubled, and at the same time the intensity of dairying increased.

In six years, the average milk production per dairy cow (milk yield) increased by almost 1000 kg or by 25 %. With just above 4,700 kg per cow, Slovenia is still considerably below the EU-15 average, but still comparable with neighbouring Austria and some other EU member countries.

Wheat and grain maize are the most important crops in Slovenia. In 2003, 25,460 agricultural holdings were engaged in the production of wheat, and 36,141 in the production of maize. Along with the decreasing number of holdings engaged in the production of these crops and the relatively unchanged extent of the total production, the concentration of the production is distinctly on the increase (average area of wheat and maize per holding).

In Slovenia, the intensity of wheat production, measured by the amount of yield per hectare, is almost 1.4 tons lower than in EU in terms of the long-term average. Hectare yield in Slovenia has not changed significantly for years. The situation in maize is similar, though the annual fluctuation is slightly more notable due to climatic factors.


Data for Slovenia
Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, 2002. Dernulc, S., Iljaš, U., Kutin, B., Orešnik, I., Cunder, T., Golež, M., Juvančič. Survey of Agricultural Holdings, Slovenia 2000 (Results of Researches, 15, Agriculture and Fishing, No. 777). Ljubljana, Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, 256 p.
Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, 1997. Sample Farm Structure Survey, Rapid Reports, No. 298, Ljubljana, December 1997.
Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, 2004. Structure of Agricultural Holdings, 1 June 2003, Rapid Reports, No. 13, Ljubljana, April 2004.
The main sources of data used to calculate indicator values are the structural surveys of agriculture carried out by the Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia. As in other EU countries, these surveys are carried out every three years. Comparable data for 1997, 2000 and 2003 are available. In 2000, a complete survey of agriculture was carried out, and included more than 86,000 agricultural holdings. In 1997 and 2003, however, only sampling surveys were carried out.
Data for Europe
Eurostat, 2003. Agriculture. Statistical Yearbook. Brussels, Luxembourg, ESC-EC-EAEC.


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