KAZALCI OKOLJA

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Neutral

The use of plant protection products (PPPs) in Slovenia in the past 20 years has decreased by almost half, from 2,031 tonnes in 1992 to 1,102 tonnes in 2015. Despite the significant reduction in the use of PPPs in Slovenia, their consumption is still higher than in the majority of other EU Member States, which is due to the greater share of permanent crops in Slovenia. Therefore, fungicides represent 2/3 of total PPPs used in Slovenia, although their consumption has also been reduced considerably in recent years.

Neutral

The consumption of mineral fertilisers in Slovenia was reduced by 28% in the period 1992–2015. The consumption of plant nutrients (N, P2O5, K2O) per hectare of utilised agricultural area was also reduced from 135 kg/ha to 103 kg/ha (23%). In the period 1992–2015, 62 kg of N, 28 kg of P2O5, and 34 kg of K2O were used on average per hectare of utilised agricultural area. In the period 2002–2013, consumption of plant nutrients in Slovenia exceeded the average for EU Member States.

Good

The area included in the implementation of agri-environmental measures expanded markedly after 1999, covering 254,772 ha (gross) in 2014. The proportion of the area with one or several agri-environmental measures (net area) to the total utilised agricultural area increased from 0.6% in 1999 to 39.2% in 2014. In 2015, agri-environmental measures started to be carried out in accordance with the new programme, on the gross area of 317,458 ha.

Neutral

In Slovenia, the level of intensification in agriculture is moderate, focusing mostly on improving labour intensity in agricultural production, i.e. reducing the input of labour per unit of area or product. The number of livestock units (LU) per ha of utilised agricultural area as the most aggregate indicator of production intensity is stable; in the 2000-2013 period, the stocking density, as in other EU countries, slightly decreased. Due to economic pressures (market-price relationships), agricultural holdings are forced to reduce costs and increase productivity and farming intensity.

Neutral

In High Nature Value areas, agriculture can ensure a suitable level of biodiversity by means of appropriate technological solutions. Extensive management methods facilitate conservation of the diversity of species and habitats, thus helping preserve unique landscapes with rich cultural and natural heritage. According to the estimates made in Slovenia on the basis of the CORINE data on land use and data on agricultural land use, between 60% and 80% of all utilised agricultural areas in Slovenia are located in High Nature Value farmland areas.

Good

In 2011, agricultural land covered 19.6% of nature protection areas of various types in Slovenia. 24.9% of all agricultural land is included in nature protection areas. In the past, agriculture in Slovenia has contributed to high diversity of species and habitats and played a key role in the shaping ofcultural landscape. Creation of protected areas is only the first step towards the preservation of traditional agricultural habitats; these habitats will only be preserved if the farmers have an economic interest in maintaining them.

Good

The educational structure of holding managers on family farms in Slovenia is unfavourable, since as many as 83 % of managers have only practical experience in agriculture. Younger holding managers are better educated; 17 % of holding managers younger than 35 years have completed some level of formal education. Generally, the education level is improving quickly – in only a three-year period, the share of formally educated holding managers on family farms increased by more than 10 %.

Good

The response of agricultural holdings to the agricultural policy and favourable market opportunities, which support the spreading of organic farming has been growing every year. The area intended for organic farming has increased in the period 1999–2018 from 2,400 ha to 47,848 ha, or from 0.5 % to 10.0 % of the total utilised agricultural area. The structure of agricultural land with organic farming is strongly dominated by grassland (81 % in 2018), which shows that livestock farms more frequently convert to organic farming.

Neutral

In Slovenia, the majority of energy consumption in agriculture is gas oil used as a propellant for agricultural machinery (56.2%), followed by energy for the production of mineral nitrogen fertilizers (36.4%) and electric energy (4.4%). Compared to the average of 28 European countries, in 2016 Slovenia has 9.5% more direct energy consumption per hectare of utilized agricultural area and 13.5% less indirect energy use in agriculture.

Bad

The KM10 indicator presents land use changes in a relatively short 9-year period between 2002 and 2011. Sustainable land management and rational use of natural resources, the impact of socio-economic factors and the impacts/consequences of administrative measures are largely reflected in spatial development and, consequently, in land use structure. The process has two characteristics:

- Urbanisation and the irreversible degradation of land it causes is increasing;


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