[PR13]
Update of alternative fuels
Assessments published: [ 2009 2013 2011 2008 ]

Biofuel is a liquid or gaseous fuel for the propulsion of motor vehicles, produced from biomass. The indicator shows the dynamics of biodiesel production and biofuel consumption in diesel fuel and gasoline in the period 2005-2008 in the Republic of Slovenia, and the energy share of biofuels in the total fuel consumption in transport in 1995 and 2006 in European countries.

Image PR13-1: The dynamics of biodiesel production in the Republic of Slovenia

Source: Ministry of the Environment and Spatial Planning


Image PR13-2: Consumption of biofuels in diesel fuel and gasoline in the Republic of Slovenia

Source: Ministry of the Environment and Spatial Planning


Image PR13-3: Energy share of biofuels in the total fuel consumption in transport in 1995 and 2006 in European countries

Source: CSI 037 - Use of cleaner and alternative fuels – Assessment published Apr 2009. European Environmental Agency, 2009. *Comment:In the annual report Use of biofuels in the transport sector in the Republic of Slovenia in 2006, the Ministry of the Environment and Spatial Planning indicated for this value the data value of 0.275 %, which is more accurate and updated. Inconsistencies happen due to insufficient data that the European Environment Agency through Eurostat receives from the Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia. The latter explains the inconsistency by temporal delay of their obtaining of data.


Distributors of diesel fuel for the propulsion of motor vehicles in transport must ensure that the annual average content of marketed biofuels in all fuels for the propulsion of motor vehicles is equal to at least 2 % in 2007, at least 3 % in 2008, at least 4 % in 2009, at least 5 % in 2010, at least 5,5 % in 2011, at least 6 % in 2012, at least 6,5 % in 2013, at least 7 % in 2014 and at least 7,5 % in 2015.

In 2003, the European Parliament and the EU Council adopted the Directive on the promotion of the use of biofuels and other renewable fuels for transport (no. 2003/30/EC), introducing measures for such incentives to replace the use of diesel fuel and gasoline in transport. This presents an important contribution to the realisation of objectives to improve the reliability of energy supply, reduce GHG emissions and create new possibilities of sustainable rural development. The Directive has set requirements that EU Member States provide a minimum share of biofuels and other renewable fuels in transport, and for this purpose, with regard to the marketing of fuels, determine their state target values of shares of biofuels for their areas. For EU Member States, referential values for the state target values of shares of biofuels in transport have also been set - 2 % by the end of 2005 and 5.75 % by the end of 2010.

Despite the optimistic forecasts on the positive effects of biofuels, doubts on their use have been increasing lately. Especially the production and use of the first generation of biofuels (agrofuels) is disputable; namely, the latter might have negative impacts on biological diversity, water and soil protection, global changes in land use, an increase in the prices of food, etc. Therefore, attention is slowly being redirected to the second generation of biofuels (waste, plant residues, such as wood biomass, straw, grass, etc.), which is still poorly researched and for which production is also expensive (EEA, 2008). Considering the high prices of engine fuels and our increasing energy dependence, the EU has high hopes for biofuels, which would, together with other renewable energy sources, by 2020 represent 10 % of the energy mix (EEA, 2009).

The EU Directive introduces significant changes regarding alternative fuels in Slovenia, since it lead to the adoption of a legislative basis and financial incentives, which present a solid basis for the implementation of measures for the promotion of the use of such fuels:
- Operational Programme for Limiting Greenhouse Gas Emissions, the amendments of which were adopted by the Government of the Republic of Slovenia in 2006, representing the starting programme document of the Republic of Slovenia for the introduction of measures for the promotion of the use of biofuels in transport (MESP, 2006).
- Excise Duty Act (OG RS, no. 02/2007), which stipulates that biofuels shall not be subject to excise control and the payment of excise duties, if used as engine fuels in their pure form. If mixed with fossil fuels, the exemption from the payment of excise duties can be claimed up to a maximum of 5 %.
- Decree on the promotion of the use of biofuels and other renewable fuels for the propulsion of motor vehicles (OG RS, no. 103/2007), which in accordance with the EU Directive no. 2003/30/EC stipulates: the types of biofuels used in transport, and the shares of annual amounts of biofuels marketed in the Republic of Slovenia for the propulsion of motor vehicles. In accordance with the provisions of Articles 5 and 6 of this Decree, distributors of fuels for the propulsion of motor vehicles in transport must ensure that the annual average content of marketed biofuels in all fuels for the propulsion of motor vehicles in Slovenia is equal to at least 2 % in 2007, at least 3 % in 2008, at least 4 % in 2009, at least 5 % in 2010, at least 5,5 % in 2011, at least 6 % in 2012, at least 6,5 % in 2013, at least 7 % in 2014 and at least 7,5 % in 2015.

The estimated shares of biofuel consumption are not achieving the referential shares referred to in the indicated Directive, since in Slovenia there are no refineries for the production of motor gasoline; biofuels appropriate for mixing with motor gasoline are not produced either. Biofuels in the Republic of Slovenia were experimentally mixed into diesel fuel intended for the propulsion of motor vehicles in road transport already in 2004. The added biodiesel in diesel fuels was partly imported from third countries, obtained from other EU Member States and partly also produced in Slovenian plants for the production of vegetable oil (MESP, 2005).

In Slovenia, the best technological possibilities exist for the production of biodiesel or pure (raw) vegetable oil as an alternative engine fuel. The basic raw material for them is oil, obtained by the cold pressing of oilseed rape or sunflower. For the final obtainment of biodiesel, a further procedure of vegetable oil estherification is necessary; for this procedure the raw material, produced on Slovenian agricultural land or imported, will be used. In the future, the majority of the planned production of biodiesel will be based on imported raw materials, since according to the estimates of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Food only a maximum of 6.000 to 7.000 hectares of land in Slovenia would be appropriate for the production of oilseed rape (MESP, 2009).

Data for Slovenia:

Objectives summarised by:
- Decree on the promotion of the use of biofuels and other renewable fuels for the propulsion of motor vehicles (OG RS, no. 103/2007).
- Resolution on National Environmental Action Plan 2005–2012 (OG RS, no. 2/2006).
- EU Directive on the promotion of the use of biofuels and other renewable fuels for transport (2003/30/EC).
Source database or source:
- Use of biofuels in the transport sector in the Republic of Slovenia – Report. Data review for the Republic of Slovenia in accordance with the first paragraph of Article 4 of Directive 2003/30/EC for the reporting year 2005. September, 2005. Ljubljana, Ministry of the Environment and Spatial Planning.
- Use of biofuels in the transport sector in the Republic of Slovenia in 2006 (21 July 2009).
- Use of biofuels in the transport sector in the Republic of Slovenia in 2007 (21 July 2009).
- Use of biofuels in the transport sector in the Republic of Slovenia in 2008.
Data administrator: Ministry of the Environment and Spatial Planning (MESP).
Date of acquisition for this indicator: 21 July 2009
Methodology and frequency of data collection for the indicator: The Ministry of the Environment and Spatial Planning has been collecting data on the dynamics of biodiesel production and the consumption of biofuels in the transport sector from the registered producers, distributers or authorised operators of the monitoring of fuel quantity and quality with regard to the placement of liquid fuels and biofuels on the market in the Republic of Slovenia; the Ministry has been publishing this data in the publication Use of biofuels in the transport sector in the Republic of Slovenia.
Data processing methodology: /
Information concerning data quality:
- Advantages and disadvantages (at data level): The data on biodiesel production is only estimated.
- Relevance, accuracy, robustness, uncertainty: The data on biodiesel production is, due to estimates, less reliable; data on the consumption of biofuels is considered as accurate and reliable.
Reliability of the indicator (archive data): In 2004, the introduction of biofuels in transport began. The data indicates the situation since 2005, when the production and consumption of biofuels increased.
Uncertainty of the indicator (scenarios/projections): Projections have not been prepared.
- Overall assessment (1 = no major comments, 3 = data to be considered with reservation): 1
Relevance: 1
Accuracy: 2 (data on biodiesel production is estimated)
Completeness over time: 1
Completeness over space: 1

Data for other countries:

Source database or source: CSI 037 - Use of cleaner and alternative fuels – Assessment published Apr 2009 (21 July 2009).
Data administrator: European Environment Agency (EEA)
Date of acquisition for this indicator: 21 July 2009
Methodology and frequency of data collection for the indicator: The data is collected annually by the European Commission.
Data processing methodology: The energy share of biofuels in the total fuel consumption in transport is calculated as a quotient of the final energy consumption of biofuels and final energy consumption of diesel fuel, gasoline and biofuels by the formula (biofuels) * 100 / (diesel + gasoline + biofuels).
Information concerning data quality:
- Advantages and disadvantages (at data level): The data is harmonised at the EU level.
- Relevance, accuracy, robustness, uncertainty: The data is considered as fairly reliable and accurate.
Reliability of the indicator (archive data): The data refers only to 1995 and 2006.
Uncertainty of the indicator (scenarios/projections): Projections have not been prepared.
- Overall assessment (1 = no major comments, 3 = data to be considered with reservation): 1
Relevance: 1
Accuracy: 1
Completeness over time: 2 (the data refers only to 1995 and 2006)
Completeness over space: 1

Other sources and literature:
- EEA, 2008. Climate for a transport change. TERM 2007: indicators tracking transport and the environment in the European Union. European Environment Agency (21 July 2009).
- EEA, 2009. Transport at a crossroads. TERM 2008: indicators tracking transport and the environment in the European Union. European Environment Agency (21 July 2009).
- MESP, 2005. Use of biofuels in the transport sector in the Republic of Slovenia – Report. Data review for the Republic of Slovenia in accordance with the first paragraph of Article 4 of the Directive 2003/30/EC for the reporting year 2005. September, 2005. Ljubljana, Ministry of the Environment and Spatial Planning.
- MESP, 2006. Operational Programme for Limiting Greenhouse Gas Emissions until 2012. Ljubljana, Ministry of the Environment and Spatial Planning (21 July 2009).
- Decree on the promotion of the use of biofuels and other renewable fuels for the propulsion of motor vehicles. OG RS, no. 103/2007.
- Excise Duty Act. OG RS, no. 02/2007.

Last update of indicator: 23th December 2009.
Aljaž Plevnik, Jani Kozina, Urban Planning Institute of the Republic of Slovenia