[PG03]
Dwellings
Assessments published: [ 2009 2010 ]

The indicator presents the development in the number of households and population, size, number, average floor area and age of dwellings, and the average number of persons in a dwelling.

A dwelling is any structurally unified whole intended for residence, with one or more rooms, with or without appropriate utility spaces (kitchen, bathroom, toilet, anteroom, larder, etc.) and with at least one separate entrance. Account has been taken of all occupied and unoccupied dwellings and dwellings for occasional use (definition by the Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia). All premises that are intended for habitation in various buildings (apartment blocks, skyscrapers, individual houses, etc.) are included.

Image PG3-1: Development in the number of dwellings

Source: Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, Population Census from 1971, 1981, 1991, 2002; Balance of the dwelling stock (after 2003).


Image PG3-2: Size of dwellings

Source: Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia ; Dwelling completed by number of rooms and useful floor space by municipalities of Slovenia, annual, 2009.


Image PG3-3: Number of dwellings, average floor area and average number of persons in a dwelling

Source: Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, Census of the Population, Households and Dwellings 2002; Balance of the dwelling stock, 2009


Image PG3-4: Age of dwellings

Source: Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, Census of the Population, Households and Dwellings 2002; Completed dwellings, annual(2009)


Image PG3-5: Number of completed dwellings in Slovenia in 2008

Source: Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, Construction of dwellings and dwelling stock, Slovenia, 2008 (July 06, 2009, First Release )


• to promote the improvement of the energy performance of buildings by considering external climatic and local conditions and internal climatic requirements and cost effectiveness;
• to promote technological development in the field of building and other materials, builder's joinery, energy technologies and systems, information technologies, etc.

Dwellings and dwelling-related construction affect the environment during their construction, during use and afterwards. During construction, this is mainly due to the use of natural resources for various building materials and products and energy supply. During the use of dwellings, the environment is affected by the consumption of electric energy and fossil fuels used for heating and warm water. Following the use of dwellings, the environment is burdened with waste materials. In Slovenia, waste building materials present one sixth of all waste generated.

In Slovenia, the number of dwellings is growing faster than the population number. Between 1971 and 2008, the number of dwellings increased by 74%, and the population number increased by a mere 18%. One half of all dwellings were built in 1971.

According to the Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, there were 830 thousand dwellings by the end of 2008. In 2008, most dwellings were completed in Central Slovenia (31% of all), mainly in Ljubljana (1,561, 685 in 2007), Škofljica (330) and Vrhnika (163). A somewhat smaller number of dwellings were completed in the Podravje region (20% of all), mainly in Maribor (898) and Slovenska Bistrica (185). The smallest number of dwellings was completed in the Zasavje region (1% of all). Similar to the previous years, most of the dwellings completed in 2008 were obtained by new construction (97%).

Primarily large dwellings are constructed. In 2008, 43% of dwellings having four rooms or more were completed. In 2008, the average dwelling size was 77m2. In cities, where half of all dwellings are located, their average size is 71m2. In rural settlements, dwellings are on average a good 10m2 larger than dwellings in urban settlements. Since 2004, the average dwelling size per person has exceeded 30m2 per person, and the average number of persons in a dwelling has been 2.5.

In 2008, 20% of dwellings had no central heating, and 7% of dwellings did not have a bathroom. Many dwellings (houses and apartment blocks) had extremely poor or no insulation. Most dwellings don’t have a heat meter to control the temperature in rooms. The remote heating systems are often not adjusted to the weather conditions (changes in the heating temperature with regard to the warmer weather), nor are they adjusted to the requirements of individual dwelling units (better insulation, the number of rooms, etc.). In the last decade, new technologies and the efficiency of heating devices have become more widespread and the number and size of dwellings have increased simultaneously.

The Study by the European Environment Agency (Environmental Pressures from European Consumption and Production, 2009; according to the Eurostat data for the selected countries) has shown that the construction of dwellings including infrastructure contributes 0.8 tons of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions per person and uses 4.3 tons of natural resources per person, mainly for the production of cement, glass, bricks, steel, aluminium, etc.

However, from the social and economic viewpoint, construction presents an important source of employment. In Europe it covers 5-10% of employment or 5-15% of the Gross National Product of the country.

Data for Slovenia:

Objectives summarized by: Directive 2002/91/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on the energy performance of buildings, and the National Energy Efficiency Action Plan for the period 2008-2016.
Source database or source: Statistical Yearbook 2006 (Population Census from 1971, 1981, 1991, 2002); balance of the dwelling stock (after 2003)
Data administrator: Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia
Data acquisition date for this indicator: 15 August 2009
Methodology and frequency of data collection: A 10-year data collection on the basis of the population census between 1991 and 2002 and annual data collection including the balance of the dwelling stock after 2003.
Until 2002, the data sources in Tables 1 to 3 were derived from the Population Census (since 1971 collection of data on dwellings in the Republic of Slovenia has been regularly included in the Population Censuses). The 2002 Census included all dwellings in the territory of the Republic of Slovenia (occupied, unoccupied, for occasional use) and other occupied premises that were used as dwellings in the time of the census (occupied business premises, occupied provisional premises). In the 2002 Census the Statistical Office included building as an independent census unit for the first time. The Census comprised all buildings with dwellings and other occupied premises that were used as dwellings during the time of the Census. The Census did not include the dwellings owned by foreign countries and the dwellings intended explicitly for rental to tourists. The data was derived from the Statistical Yearbook 2006. The census data provided by the Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia in cooperation with the Surveying and Mapping Authority of the Republic of Slovenia is in the processing phase and will be available in 2011. The data provided from 2003 on is the data derived from the balance of the dwelling stock, which is a combination of the data on dwellings collected with the Census of the Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Slovenia 2002 and the data collected with regular statistical research. The source of data on dwellings obtained anew is based on estimations calculated on the basis of the data provided by the Monthly Questionnaire of the Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia on building permits (GRAD-GD/M). The source of data on dwellings no longer used as dwellings or demolished is derived from the Monthly Questionnaire on Demolition Permits or Permits for Changing the Purpose of the Dwelling (GRAD-RS/M).
The calculation includes all dwellings in the territory of the Republic of Slovenia (occupied, unoccupied, for occasional use). As a rule, only completed dwellings are included, in which all construction, installation and finishing work was performed. Exceptionally, the census also covered all uncompleted dwellings if households had already been using them for permanent habitation. Only the section of the dwelling used for habitation was considered, irrespective of the degree to which the building was completed. In line with the definitions of the 2002 Dwelling Census, dwellings for occasional use (holiday dwellings) has also been taken into account, but dwellings in apartment buildings for special purposes (such as homes, dormitories, etc.) has not been considered. The data does not include occupied provisional premises (business premises, huts, cellars, attics, etc.) and collective accommodation (homes, dormitories, etc.). The data also does not include dwellings owned by foreign countries and dwellings intended explicitly for rental to tourists.
Methodological differences: Considering the total number of dwellings, the results for 1999-2001 included only occupied and unoccupied dwellings but not dwellings for occasional use. However, since 2002 the total number of dwellings includes occupied and unoccupied dwellings as well as dwellings for occasional use.
Data processing methodology: Development in the number of dwellings; the data is calculated according to the index with the base year of 1971. Size of dwellings: The picture presents three selected years (the latest available, middle and first available years) Dwelling number, average floor area per person and average number of persons in a dwelling: The data is calculated according to the index with the base year of 2003 Age of dwellings: Where possible, the data for the periods are combined into 10-year sets.
Information concerning data quality:
- advantages and disadvantages of the indicator:/
- relevance, accuracy, robustness, uncertainty:
Reliability of the indicator (archival data): /
Uncertainty of the indicator (scenarios/projections): /
- Overall assessment (1 = no major comments, 3 = data to be considered with reservation): 2
Relevance: 2
Accuracy: 1
Completeness over time: 2
Completeness over space: 1

Other sources and literature:
Comparison for Europe and the wider area is derived from:
o EEA, 2009: Environmental Pressures from European Consumption and Production, a study in integrated environmental and economic analysis
o EEA Technical report; No. 1/2008; Time for action – towards sustainable consumption and production in Europe, Summary report of the conference held on 27 – 29 September 2007, Ljubljana, Slovenia

15 October 2010 - data, 19 November 2010 - text
Barbara Bernard Vukadin, Urška Kušar, Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia; Alenka Burja, Ministry of the Environment and Spatial Planning