Greenhouse gas emissions in 2007 amounted to 20,722 kilotons CO2 equivalent, which is 1.8% above the base year. In accordance with Slovenia's commitment to achieve an 8% reduction in its emissions, an average emission of greenhouse gasses in the 2008-2012 period should not exceed 18,726 kilotons CO2 equivalent.
The indicator shows the movement of the total quantity of greenhouse gas emissions in Slovenia and the main categories of sources. The calculations are based on the IPCC methodology (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). Based on the Slovenian ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, which requires an 8% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions in the 2008-2012 period in comparison to the base year (1986), the indicator also monitors the movement of the global quantity of greenhouse gasses and offers comparison with the EU-15 and the EU-27 countries. In accordance with the international agreements, emissions in the base year are the sum of CO2(carbon dioxide), CH4(methane) and N2O (nitrous oxide) emissions in 1986 and emissions of F-gasses (HFC - hydrofluorocarbons, PFC - perfluorocarbons and SF6- sulphur hexafluoride) in 1995. Emissions in the base year were determined on the basis of the situation recorded in the emission records in July 2007.
Image PS3-1: Movement of greenhouse gas emissions in the 1990-2007 period for Slovenia, EU-15 and EU-27 (the data does not include land-use, land-use change and forestry)
Source: EEA Technical Report 7/2007, Annual European Community Greenhousegas Inventory 1990-2005 and inventory report 2007; GHG Archives, Environmenmtal Agency of the Republic of Slovenia, April 2008.
Image PS3-2: Greenhouse gas emissions by main category of gasses
Source: GHG Archives, Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia, April, 2008
Image PS3-3: Annual greenhouse gases emissions by sectors
Source: GHG Archives, Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia, April 2008
Image PS3-4: Overview of measures for attaining the Kyoto Protocol objectives
An 8% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions in the period of 2008-2012 with respect to the value as identified in the base year (1986), among others, by attaining the following area goals:
• 12% share of renewable energy sources in the primary energy balance by 2010
• 25% share of renewable energy sources in heat supply by 2010
• 33.6% share of electricity from renewable sources by 2010
• 7.5% share of biofuel in traffic by 2015
• 9% cumulative end energy savings in the 2008-2016 period
• 10% increase in the efficiency of energy use in the industry and service sector by 2010 in comparison to 2004
• 10% increase in the efficiency of energy use in buildings by 2010 compared to 2004
• 15% increase in the efficiency of energy use in the public sector by 2010 compared to 2004
• 10% increase in the efficiency of energy use in traffic by 2010 compared to 2004
• Doubling the share of electricity from cogeneration from 800 GWh in 2000 to 1,600 GWh in 2010
The greatest contributor among the emissions of greenhouse gases in 2007 was carbon dioxide – CO2 (82.0 %), which results mainly from fuel combustion; the second largest contributor was methane (10.5 %), mostly deriving from wastes and agriculture, and third was nitrous oxide – N2O (6.4%), deriving from agriculture as well. Traffic-related N2O emissions have also been observed. Emissions of F-gases, which include hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6), are very small (1.1%), but due to high greenhouse potential, their contribution to global warming is far from insignificant.
Emissions of greenhouse gasses in 2007 amounted to 20.722 Gg (gigagram=1000 tons or kilotons) CO2 equivalent. This is 1.9% above the value in the base year. The quantity of emissions in the base year was finally determined in 2007 for all the signatories of the Kyoto Protocol and can no longer be changed. For Slovenia, the total quantity of emissions in the base year is calculated as the sum of CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions in 1986, and emission of F-gasses in 1995, which amounts to 20,354.042 Gg CO2 equivalent. In accordance with the obligation from the Kyoto Protocol, which requires an 8% reduction in emissions, average emissions in the 2008-2012 period in Slovenia should not exceed 18.725,719 kt CO2 equivalent.
In order to fulfil the obligations arising from the Kyoto Protocol, it was therefore necessary to introduce additional measures to help us achieve the prescribed value. The majority of them are described in the Operational Programme for the Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions, which was adopted by the Government of the Republic of Slovenia in 2006. For the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the area of energy production and consumption, the Energy Act was adopted in 1999, and the National Energy Programme (NEP) was drawn up as well. Both of these documents envisage a sustainability-oriented development of the energy sector by enhancing the effectiveness of energy as well as using renewable energy sources. The table below presents these measures. In 2005, one of the three most essential Kyoto mechanisms began functioning, i.e. trade in greenhouse gas emissions. In 2008, 98 installation operators from Slovenia were included in the trading system. In the EU, emission trading was introduced in 2005; at the global level, it is to be introduced in the 2008-2012 period. Another additional measure in the traffic sector is the implementation of measures from the Transport Policy Resolution, which envisage rerouting the transit from roads to railways.
Although total emissions have not changed significantly in comparison with the base year, there is a considerable change in their distribution by sector. The highest increase in emissions in period 1986-2007, a 175% rise, occurred in traffic emissions. Due to road traffic, the total amount of greenhouse gas emissions has been increasing by more than one per cent a year, which diminishes our efforts to curb greenhouse gas emissions in all other sectors. A greater amount of emissions from traffic is mainly the result of economic growth in Slovenia as well as in the wider region. The growth of emissions due to transit through Slovenia, which rose substantially after the country entered the EU, has also been observed.
In light of the loss of the Yugoslav markets, abandonment of non-profitable production and increase in productivity, the manufacturing industries contributed the largest share towards curbing greenhouse gas emissions. The decrease occurred both in emissions arising from fuel consumption and processing emissions. For the purposes of maintaining competitiveness, trade in emissions and the IPPC Directive, the industrial sector is encouraged to make use of the currently best available technology (BAT). The IPPC Directive on integrated pollution prevention and control requires the EU Member Countries to issue permits for process installations in all industry sectors. Integrated pollution prevention means the reduction of emissions into the air, water and soil, rational use of raw-materials, reduction of noise, and greater energy efficiency.
Lower emissions than those in the base year are also noticed within the agricultural sector, which is mostly a result of reduction in the number of livestock units. The future projections anticipate that the number of cattle will again rise due to quotas determined for Slovenia. On the other hand, agricultural policy will, by introducing good agricultural practice in fertilising and establishing biogas consumption for electricity and heating production, influence the reduction in agricultural emissions.
Forests cover more than 58% of Slovenia’s land surface and constitute an important source of reducing GHG emissions. Calculations of CO2 sinks are considerable due to land use change and forestry. In 2007, CO2 sinks reached 5,774 Gg of CO2, exceeding a much lower permitted level. On the basis of the condition stipulating that these sinks must be a direct result of human activity so that the state may use them for the purposes of fulfilling its obligations, an assessment was selected according to which it will be possible to make use of at least 1,320 Gg of CO2 during the period of 2008-2012.
Data for Slovenia
Objectives summarized by: Resolution on National Environmental Action Programme 2005-2012 (ReNPVO, Official Gazette of the RS, No. 2/06).
Data for Europe:
Source database or source: Data for the EU-15 and EU-27 is taken from the technical report of the European Environment Agency, No. 4/2009 (Annual European Community greenhouse gas inventory 1990-2007 and inventory report 2009). http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/european-community-greenhouse-gas-inventory-2009..