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Energy use accounts for 80% of total greenhouse gas emissions in Slovenia. The largest source of emissions is transport, followed by heat and electricity production. After the EU Emission Trading Scheme (EU-ETS) was introduced, only emissions from sources not included in the EU-ETS system have been relevant for achieving the country's goals concerning the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by 2020. By far the largest source is transport, which accounts for 50%, while all energy-related sources combined account for 74%. In 2015, emissions were 13.4% below the target value for that year.


The indicator shows past greenhouse gas emissions (carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and Fluorinated gases (F-gases)). They are divided into non energy-related and energy-related emissions, which are analysed in more detail. The indicator also shows target emissions for the 2013–2020 period under Decision No. 406/2009 of the European Commission and target emissions under the Kyoto Protocol that were set for the 2008–2012 period.

Energy-related emissions are the result of fuel combustion in electricity and heat production, manufacturing activities and construction, transport, as well as households and services. In addition, emissions are included that are not generated directly as a result of fuel combustion but are related to energy, i.e. “fugitive” emissions from coal production (coal mines), transportation and distribution of natural gas and desulfurisation of emissions from thermal power plants.

As new methodology for international reporting has been introduced, the data compiled in 2015 was reported differently for greenhouse gas emissions for the entire 1986–2013 period. As a result, the data published this year are not entirely comparable with the data published in previous years. However, this has no effect on the key findings.

 


Charts

Figure EN01-1: Energy-related GHG emissions, GDP and gross inland energy consumption, 2000–2015
Sources: 
GHG Archive, Slovenian Environment Agency (2017)
; Statistical Office of the RS (2017)
; Energy efficiency centre, Jožef Stefan Institute (2017)
Show data

Gross inland consumption

GDP

GHG emissions from energy sources

Gross inland consumption

GDP

GHG emissions from energy sources

2000

100

100

100

0

6490.78

18902

15301.13

2001

102.69

102.95

105.54

0

6665.26

19459.54

16148.17

2002

103.68

106.90

105.98

0

6729.68

20206.05

16216.23

2003

105.12

109.94

104.21

0

6822.93

20780.33

15945.31

2004

108.30

114.72

106.41

0

7029.59

21684.63

16282.23

2005

111.03

119.31

107.96

0

7206.82

22552.66

16518.55

2006

111.21

126.06

109.06

0

7218.45

23828.24

16686.81

2007

111.59

134.81

109.83

0

7243.18

25482.30

16804.92

2008

117.86

139.26

116.52

0

7650.22

26323.29

17828.12

2009

109.23

128.40

106.33

0

7089.78

24270.76

16269.91

2010

111.10

129.99

106.74

0

7211.44

24571.16

16333.14

2011

112.16

130.84

106.77

0

7280.05

24730.71

16336.55

2012

107.96

127.32

103.12

0

7007.12

24065.60

15778.86

2013

104.87

125.93

98.29

0

6806.58

23804.04

15039.49

2014

101.24

129.85

86.64

0

6571.33

24543.44

13256.82

2015

99.44

132.85

87.54

0

6454.48

25112.02

13394.58

Figure EN01-2: Energy-related emissions by sector and non-energy related emissions in Slovenia in 2015
Sources: 
GHG Archive, Slovenian Environment Agency (2017)
Show data

Non-energy related sources

Electricity and heat production (incl. fugitive emissions)

Industry and construction (energy use of fuels)

Transport

Other (wide use)

2015

20.41

29.30

9.45

31.84

9.00

2015

3434.45

4930.57

1591.12

5358.94

1513.95

Figure EN01-3: Change in emissions compared to base year (1986) only for energy resources in the period 1990 - 2015
Sources: 
GHG Archive, Slovenian Environment Agency (2017)
Show data

- Other (wide use)

- Transport

- Industry and constr. (fuels)

- Elect., heat prod.+ fugitive em.

Energy sector:

- Other (wide use)

- Transport

- Industry and constr. (fuels)

- Elect., heat prod.+ fugitive em.

Energy sector:

1990

-482.78

725.93

-1255.81

-380.46

-1393.12

0

1883.10

2733.53

3149.88

6884.33

14650.84

1991

-183.21

572.83

-1308.16

-1359.19

-2277.73

0

2182.67

2580.42

3097.54

5905.60

13766.23

1992

-434.20

647.99

-1710.54

-779.27

-2276.02

0

1931.68

2655.58

2695.16

6485.52

13767.94

1993

51.21

1091.04

-1888.10

-1032.78

-1778.62

0

2417.09

3098.64

2517.59

6232.01

14265.34

1994

-38.63

1441.34

-1716.86

-1269.20

-1583.35

0

2327.25

3448.93

2688.83

5995.59

14460.61

1995

113.36

1816.00

-1772.65

-1054.34

-897.63

0

2479.24

3823.59

2633.04

6210.46

15146.33

1996

744.02

2451.86

-1907.38

-1469.88

-181.39

0

3109.90

4459.45

2498.31

5794.91

15862.57

1997

815.75

2519.12

-2169.23

-1015.18

150.46

0

3181.64

4526.71

2236.46

6249.61

16194.42

1998

847.43

1893.69

-2110.03

-779.34

-148.25

0

3213.31

3901.28

2295.66

6485.45

15895.71

1999

1064.34

1701.22

-2099.94

-1499.73

-834.11

0

3430.22

3708.81

2305.75

5765.06

15209.84

2000

736.92

1850.13

-2130.01

-1199.85

-742.82

0

3102.80

3857.72

2275.68

6064.94

15301.13

2001

808.38

1972.51

-2188.58

-488.10

104.21

0

3174.26

3980.11

2217.11

6776.70

16148.17

2002

663.55

1857.45

-2156.39

-192.34

172.28

0

3029.43

3865.05

2249.30

7072.45

16216.23

2003

583.72

1996.43

-2239.82

-438.98

-98.65

0

2949.60

4004.02

2165.87

6825.82

15945.31

2004

517.73

2146.11

-2119.28

-306.29

238.27

0

2883.61

4153.71

2286.41

6958.50

16282.23

2005

266.16

2421.15

-1920.56

-292.16

474.59

0

2632.04

4428.75

2485.13

6972.63

16518.55

2006

44.35

2640.25

-1817.32

-224.43

642.85

0

2410.23

4647.85

2588.37

7040.36

16686.81

2007

-403.84

3221.43

-2060.61

3.99

760.97

0

1962.04

5229.03

2345.08

7268.78

16804.92

2008

-37.06

4150.23

-2088.10

-240.91

1784.16

0

2328.82

6157.83

2317.59

7023.88

17828.12

2009

-106.35

3318.30

-2449.33

-536.66

225.96

0

2259.53

5325.89

1956.36

6728.13

16269.91

2010

-73.94

3257.92

-2489.61

-405.18

289.18

0

2291.94

5265.51

1916.08

6859.61

16333.14

2011

-335.87

3691.81

-2687.42

-375.94

292.60

0

2030.02

5699.41

1718.28

6888.86

16336.55

2012

-579.12

3765.80

-2755.58

-696.21

-265.10

0

1786.76

5773.40

1650.11

6568.59

15778.86

2013

-661.02

3452.26

-2761.83

-1033.88

-1004.47

0

1704.87

5459.85

1643.86

6230.91

15039.49

2014

-949.46

3377.41

-2755.79

-2459.30

-2787.14

0

1416.42

5385.00

1649.90

4805.50

13256.82

2015

-851.93

3351.35

-2814.57

-2334.23

-2649.38

0

1513.95

5358.94

1591.12

4930.57

13394.58

Figure EN01-4: Emissions in the period 2005-2015 divided into sources comitted to EU ETS and sources that are not included in the EU ETS
Sources: 
GHG Archive, Slovenian Environment Agency (2017)
; Energy efficiency centre, Jožef Stefan Institute (2017)
Show data

Actual emissions of sources comitted to EU ETS

Granted quotas in the national allocation plan for the period 2005-2007

The difference between actual emissions and quotas

Emissions due to energy use

Electricity and heat prod. (incl. fugitive emissions)

Industry and construction (energy use of fuels)

Transport

Other (wide use)

Non-energy related sources:

TOTAL non-EU ETS

Target for non-EU ETS sector

Distance to target for non-EU ETS

2005

11804.20

9192.55

2611.65

8739.76

589.11

1089.87

4428.75

2632.04

3004.14

11743.91

11824.16

-80.25

2006

11828.50

8757.31

3071.19

8833.61

603.41

1172.12

4647.85

2410.23

2986.52

11820.13

11824.16

-4.03

2007

11754.71

8311.24

3443.47

8725.44

587.15

947.22

5229.03

1962.04

3025.09

11750.53

11824.16

-73.63

2008

12636.13

8214.36

4421.77

9963.49

530.99

945.85

6157.83

2328.82

2779.33

12742.81

11824.16

918.65

2009

11504.50

8216.05

3288.45

8921.12

533.84

801.86

5325.89

2259.53

2716.68

11637.81

11824.16

-186.35

2010

11471.50

8226.46

3245.04

8898.31

559.31

781.55

5265.51

2291.94

2702.61

11600.91

11824.16

-223.24

2011

11614.92

8224.72

3390.21

8980.15

574.43

676.30

5699.41

2030.02

2690.35

11670.50

11824.16

-153.66

2012

11428.38

8226.21

3202.17

8771.07

557.98

652.94

5773.40

1786.76

2688.67

11459.74

11824.16

-364.42

2013

7389.99

0

0

8304.11

534.46

604.94

5459.85

1704.87

2644.57

10948.68

12323.92

-1375.24

2014

6115.29

0

0

7823.33

426.53

595.39

5385.00

1416.42

2669.56

10492.89

12353.72

-1860.83

2015

6108.87

0

0

7918.29

454.30

591.09

5358.94

1513.95

2801.16

10719.44

12383.52

-1664.08


Goals

Slovenia's goal by 2020 is not to increase its greenhouse gas emissions by more than 4% compared to 2005 levels; the goal relates to emissions from sources not included in the EU-EU-ETS system and is in line with the EU target set by Decision No. 406/2009/EC, committing the EU as a whole to reduce its GHG emissions by 20% by 2020 compared to 1990 levels. The commitments are set out for the entire 2013–2020 period; the target values are set at 12,324 kt of CO2 equivalent for 2013 and 12,533 kt of CO2 equivalent for 2020 with target values for intermediate years following a linear increment from year to year.


In Slovenia, energy use is the largest source of greenhouse gas emissions, accounting for 82% of total emissions in 2013. In 2013, emissions amounted to 14,878 kt of CO2 equivalent, which was 8.2% below the 1986 values and as much as 4.8% below the levels in 2012. Among the reasons for such a reduction in that year are the decreased sales of motor fuels in transport, further reduction in the use of liquid fuels in households and the service sector, as well as the reduced production of thermal power plants.

After 2002, the decoupling of economic growth from emissions was achieved. Until 2007, emissions grew slower than gross domestic product as a consequence of structural changes and more efficient energy use. A period of stagnation followed, caused by economic crisis. In 2013, the decoupling became more pronounced – emissions were reduced in all sectors, while gross domestic product remained virtually unchanged.

Changes in energy-related greenhouse gas emissions can be divided into three periods: in the 1986–1991 period they were decreasing, followed by (with a few exceptions) a long period of increase in 1991–2008. From 2009 onwards, the trend reversed again – with substantial reduction in the years 2009, 2012 and 2013. The reduction in the last period was a consequence of reduction in all sectors.

In 2013, CO2 had the greatest share (97%) in energy-related greenhouse gas emissions with electricity and heat production as the main source, followed by transport. CH4 represented 2% with mining as the main source, while the contribution of firewood combustion in households is important as well. N2O contributed 1%, with transport as the main source. CO2 emissions decreased by 6.6% in the period 1986–2013, while emissions of CH4 and N2O decreased by 35.1% and 13.6%, respectively.

 

Emissions by sector

The largest source of energy-related greenhouse gas emissions in 2013 was electricity and heat production (42%), followed by transport (37%) and industry (11%), while the contribution of households and services combined was 10%. The share of transport has increased significantly since 1986.

Transport is the most problematic sector, as emissions in 2013 were up 164% compared to 1986. The increase is a consequence of the increase in the number of vehicles, kilometres driven, economic growth, the reduced modal split share of public transport and railway transport, while the impact of transit transport is important as well. After Slovenia entered the EU, particularly after 2004, emission trends were largely affected by transit transport through Slovenia, which increased mostly as a result of the EU enlargement. Here, it needs to be emphasised that the implementation of planned measures from operational programmes to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (Ministry of Agriculture and Environment, 2012; Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning, 2014) is lagging behind the plans. After 2008, emissions from transport stabilised in line with trends in the use of liquid fossil fuels. The impact of the increase in the use of renewable energy sources in transport on emissions is marginal. In 2013, emissions were 5.4% lower than a year earlier.

Emissions from electricity and heat production in 2013 were 8.2% below the levels in 1986 due to improved efficiency of thermal power plants, replacement of liquid and solid fuels with fuel gas as well as the use of wood biomass in cogeneration and, in recent years, strained conditions on the electricity market. Compared to 2012 levels, the emissions decreased by 4.8% as a result of reduced operation of thermal power plants. No major restructuring of the electricity supply sector occurred.

Emissions from industry and construction decreased the most (by 63.2%) in the period 1986–2013. The decrease is a result of industry restructuring in the beginning of the 90s, replacement of fuels (liquid and solid fuels with fuel gas) and economic crisis that influenced the use of energy after 2008. In the period 1986–2008, emissions decreased by 48.2%, while in the period 2009–2013, they decreased further by an additional 28.8%. In the latter period, deteriorated performance of companies influenced the decrease in emissions. In 2013, however, the trend slowed down significantly, as emissions were only 0.2% lower compared to levels in the previous year.

In other areas (households and service activities), emissions decreased by 5.4% in 2013, which is largely a consequence of further reduction in the use of fuel oil. Emissions from this sector have been decreasing since 1999, with occasional periods of stagnation. The decrease has been particularly intensive since 2010 due to a rapid decline in the use of fuel oil. Reduction of emissions is the result of several causes: improved insulation of buildings and replacement of doors and windows, replacement of fuels (increased share of renewable energy sources), changed behaviour, etc. In 2013, emissions were down by 31.5% compared to 1986 and by as much as 53.3% compared to 1999.

 

Achievement of goals

The EU has set an ambitious goal to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 20% by 2020 compared to 1990 levels. The goal of 20% reduction of emissions is divided into 21% reduction of emissions by participants of the EU-ETS system (EU, 2009a) and goals of member states for sources outside EU-ETS, defined by Decision 2009/406/EC (EU, 2009).

Under the decision, Slovenia's goal includes an increase of emissions from sources outside ETS of less than 4% by 2020 compared to 2005 values (EU, 2009). Annual target values for intermediate years are defined as well, following a linear increment from year to year.

The ministry responsible for the environment works toward meeting its climate-related goals by the implementation of the Operational Programme of Measures to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions by 2020 (Ministry of Environment and Spatial planning, 2014). The measures relate to all sectors except those within the EU-ETS scheme. Financial analysis of the measures revealed that the ratio of direct financial incentives to investments will need to be improved. The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is strongly influenced by the greenhouse gas emissions trading system, which has operated at the EU-level since 2005.

 

 



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