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Development of industrialisation has contributed to a considerable rise in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, which cause global warming. By signing the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Slovenia joined the efforts to reduce the influence of human activity on the environment. The next step in this direction was the Kyoto Protocol the signing of which committed Slovenia to reduce its emissions by 8% in respect of the 1986 base year, within the first target period 2008-2012.
The indicator shows the trend of total greenhouse gas emission quantities in Slovenia and main source categories. The quantities are calculated using the IPCC methodology (IPCC – Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change).


Charts

Figure PS03-1: Annual emissions of greenhouse gases and the target set for the period 2008-2012
Sources: 

EEA Technical Report 7/2007, Annual European Community Greenhousegas Inventory 1990-2005 and inventory report 2007; GHG Archives, Environmenmtal Agency of the Republic of Slovenia, April 2008.

Show data
base year SI - 1986 1987 1988 1989 base year EU-15 - 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995
EU15 Member States indeks np np np np 100 100 98 97 96 97
indeks np np np np 100 98 95 93 92 93
Slovenia indeks 100 98 95 95 91 86 86 88 88 92
1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
EU15 Member States indeks 99 98 98 97 97 98 98 99 99 98
indeks 96 94 93 91 91 92 91 93 93 92
Slovenia indeks 95 97 95 92 93 98 99 97 99 101
2006 - - - target 2008-2012 -
EU15 Member States indeks np
indeks np
Slovenia indeks 101
Figure PS03-2: Greenhouse gas emissions in Slovenia
Sources: 

GHG Archives, Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia, April, 2008

Show data
base year 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994
CO2 1000 t CO2 equiv. 16281 16294 15873 15534 15484 14751 13778 13695 14199 14195
CH4 1000 t CO2 equiv. 2376 2384 2335 2323 2317 2303 2189 2267 2191 2175
N2O 1000 t CO2 equiv. 1370 1376 1394 1337 1279 1256 1174 1269 1172 1199
HFC 1000 t CO2 equiv. 29 np np np np np np np np np
PFC 1000 t CO2 equiv. 286 276 318 220 250 257 303 243 251 282
SF6 1000 t CO2 equiv. 12 10 10 10 11 10 10 10 11 11
total 1000 t CO2 equiv. 20354 20340 19931 19424 19342 18578 17454 17485 17825 17862
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
CO2 1000 t CO2 equiv. 14980 15735 16047 15784 15143 15223 16185 16259 16061 16427
CH4 1000 t CO2 equiv. 2167 2113 2127 2162 2138 2229 2180 2257 2212 2186
N2O 1000 t CO2 equiv. 1213 1220 1258 1278 1280 1318 1309 1336 1299 1261
HFC 1000 t CO2 equiv. 29 27 33 27 24 31 39 50 64 80
PFC 1000 t CO2 equiv. 286 240 194 149 106 106 106 116 119 120
SF6 1000 t CO2 equiv. 12 12 12 13 16 16 16 17 18 18
total 1000 t CO2 equiv. 18687 19346 19671 19413 18706 18923 19834 20037 19773 20092
2005 2006
CO2 1000 t CO2 equiv. 16759 16878
CH4 1000 t CO2 equiv. 2191 2158
N2O 1000 t CO2 equiv. 1280 1309
HFC 1000 t CO2 equiv. 96 112
PFC 1000 t CO2 equiv. 124 116
SF6 1000 t CO2 equiv. 19 19
total 1000 t CO2 equiv. 20468 20591
Figure PS03-3: Annual greenhouse gases emissions by sectors
Sources: 

GHG Archives, Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia, April 2008

Show data
base year 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994
transportation 1000 t CO2 equiv. 2008 2033 2324 2504 2535 2744 2590 2674 3095 3422
energetics 1000 t CO2 equiv. 6729 6729 6379 6461 6566 6266 5345 5867 5789 5255
industrial processes 1000 t CO2 equiv. 1328 1288 1314 1289 1282 1292 1178 1024 899 1082
fuels in industry 1000 t CO2 equiv. 4406 4406 3904 3676 3449 3125 3074 2680 2513 2678
fuels in households 1000 t CO2 equiv. 2366 2366 2481 2030 2093 1809 2127 1887 2367 2274
agriculture 1000 t CO2 equiv. 2334 2334 2364 2306 2249 2243 2085 2274 2128 2133
wastes 1000 t CO2 equiv. 566 566 575 584 597 597 586 565 567 572
other 1000 t CO2 equiv. 618 618 591 573 571 502 470 516 467 446
total 1000 t CO2 equiv. 20354 20340 19931 19424 19342 18578 17454 17485 17825 17862
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
transportation 1000 t CO2 equiv. 3771 4377 4453 3855 3675 3832 3974 3988 4134 4285
energetics 1000 t CO2 equiv. 5590 5308 5706 5946 5237 5512 6260 6432 6187 6315
industrial processes 1000 t CO2 equiv. 1109 1067 1038 983 950 970 1018 1031 1112 1148
fuels in industry 1000 t CO2 equiv. 2628 2460 2220 2286 2298 2269 2211 2244 2158 2289
fuels in households 1000 t CO2 equiv. 2435 3058 3130 3160 3375 3049 3120 2977 2891 2828
agriculture 1000 t CO2 equiv. 2117 2049 2042 2087 2066 2162 2127 2188 2092 1999
wastes 1000 t CO2 equiv. 576 582 613 632 655 674 682 697 700 726
other 1000 t CO2 equiv. 460 444 469 464 449 454 443 480 498 502
total 1000 t CO2 equiv. 18687 19346 19671 19413 18706 18923 19834 20037 19773 20092
2005 2006
transportation 1000 t CO2 equiv. 4569 4797
energetics 1000 t CO2 equiv. 6386 6379
industrial processes 1000 t CO2 equiv. 1209 1243
fuels in industry 1000 t CO2 equiv. 2488 2589
fuels in households 1000 t CO2 equiv. 2585 2344
agriculture 1000 t CO2 equiv. 2006 2029
wastes 1000 t CO2 equiv. 729 702
other 1000 t CO2 equiv. 495 508
total 1000 t CO2 equiv. 20468 20591

Goals

With accession to the Kyoto Protocol, Slovenia has committed to achieve an 8% reduction in its emissions of greenhouse gases by the period 2008-2012 in respect of the value as identified in 1986. Slovenia also has to fulfil its reporting obligations according to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol.


The greatest contributor among the emissions of greenhouse gases in 2003 was carbon dioxide – CO2 (81,3 %), which results mailny from fuel combustion; the second largest contributor was methane – CH4 (10 %), mostly deriving from wastes and agriculture, and third nitrogen dioxide – N2O (7.6%), deriving from agriculture as well. Also noticeable were traffic-related emissions. Emissions of F-gases which include hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6), are very small, but due to high greenhouse potential, their contribution to global warming is far from insignificant (1,1 %).

Emissions of greenhouse gases in 2003 amounted to 19803 Gg in CO2 equivalents, i.e. almost two percents below the value in the base year. In order to fulfil the obligations arising from the Kyoto Protocol it was therefore necessary to introduce additional measures. The majority of them are described in the Operational Programme for the Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions, drawn up and adopted by the Government of the Republic of Slovenia in 2003. For the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the area of energy production and consumption, the Energy Act was adopted in 1999, and the National Energy Programme (NEP) has been drawn up as well. Both these documents envisage a sustainability-oriented development of the energy sector by enhancing the effectiveness of energy as well as consumption of renewable energy sources. In 2005, one of the three most essential Kyoto mechanisms has begun functioning as well, i.e. trade in greenhouse gas emissions, which includes 97 installation operators from Slovenia. In the EU, emission trading will be introduced in the period 2005-2007, and on a global level, in the period 2008-2012.

Although total emissions have not changed significantly in comparison with the base year, there is a considerable change in their distribution by sector. The highest, more than 100% rise occurred in traffic emissions, the majority of them resulting from the increase in personal traffic; however, this is exactly the segment for which Slovenia has not yet developed an integrated development programme. The growth in total emissions is also due to emissions arising from fuel consumption in residential and commercial sectors, as well as emissions from wastes.

In the light of the loss of the Yugoslav markets, abandonment of non-profitable production and increase in productivity, the decrease in emissions has been principally contributed to by manufacturing industries. The decrease occurred both in emissions arising from fuel consumption and process emissions. For the purposes of maintaining competitiveness, trade in emissions and the IPPC Directive, the industrial sector is encouraged to make use of currently best available technology (BAT).

Lower emissions than those in the base year are also noticed within the agricultural sector, which is mostly a result of reduction in the number of livestock units. The future projections anticipate that the number of cattle will again rise due to quotas determined for Slovenia. On the other hand, agricultural policy will, by introducing good agricultural practice in fertilising and establishing biogas consumption for electricity and heating production, influence the reduction in agricultural emissions.

Forests cover more than 56% of Slovenia’s land surface and constitute an important source of reducing GHG emissions. Calculations of sinks are considerable due to land use change and forestry; in 2003, CO2 sinks reached 5561 Gg, exceeding a much lower recognizable level. On the basis of the condition stipulating that these sinks must be a direct result of human activity so that the state may use them for the purposes of fulfilling its obligations, an assessment was selected according to which it will be possible to make use of at least 840 Gg CO2 during the period 2008-2012.


Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory for 1986 and 1990-2006, Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia, April 2005.

For the purposes of reporting according to the Framework Convention of the United Nations on Climate Change, using IPCC methodology, records were made of emissions of greenhouse gases for 1986 and 1990-2003, provided in CRF format (i.e. Common Reporting Format). In the future, greenhouse gas emissions will be reported once a year, by 15 March for the year immediately preceding the previous year. In the event that new data are available or calculation methods used have been changed, recalculations must also be made for older periods. The accuracy of calculations and the appropriateness of the data used shall be supervised by the Convention Secretariat with annual revisions of reports. Calculations of emissions from fuel consumption sectors and partially also industrial processes are fairly accurate, while assessments in the areas of agriculture and wastes are appreciably less reliable, owing to the nature of the process.

Supporting studies for 2nd/3rd state report to the conference of parties to the Framework Convention of the United Nations on Climate Change, Final Report, MESP, July 2004.

EEA Technical Report 6/2006, Annual European Community Greenhousegas Inventory 1990-2005 and inventory report 2006.


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