KAZALCI OKOLJA

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Key message
Neutral

The European Community has met its commitments under the first period of the Kyoto Protocol, as total emissions (excluding the sinks) in the period 2008-2012 were around 19% lower than in the base year.  By imposing the maximum level of allowed sinks, Slovenia has exceeded the 2012 target by about 3%.

In 2018, Slovenian GHG emissions increased by 0.8% compared to 2017. Therefore, Slovenia is on a good track to achieve the EU goal, as non-ETS GHG emissions in 2018 were about 10% below the allocated emissions for 2017.


This indicator shows the trends in greenhouse gas emissions in Slovenia, the main sources of emissions (by category and sector) and the comparison with other European Union countries (the EU-28). Emissions included in the emission trading system (EU ETS), as well as those not included, are presented. Emissions are expressed in Gg COequivalent.

Greenhouse gas emissions monitored within the emission inventory include carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O ), F-gasses (such as hydrofluorocarbons (HFC), perfluorocarbons (PFC) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6). Greenhouse gas emissions are calculated in accordance with the IPCC methodology, which enables international comparability of data. Emissions are being calculated for transport, energy, industrial processes and the use of products, fuels in industry, fuels in households and commercial use, agriculture and waste. Land use, land use change and forestry represent a special category.

 


Charts

Figure PS03-1: Current progress of Member States towards their 2017 and 2018 Effort Sharing targets
Show data

average change in emissions in period 2005-2017 [%]

average change in emissions in period 2005-2018 [%]

target 2020 [%]

Portugal

-17.30

-16.10

1

Spain

-14.80

-14.10

-10

Ireland

-6.90

-3.60

-20

Austria

-9.10

10.90

-16

Slovenia

-8

-7.20

4

Greece

-27.30

-28.20

-4

Netherlands

-19.90

-20.40

-16

Poland

17.50

21.10

14

France

-11.40

-13.90

-14

Italy

-19.20

-17.90

-13

Luxembourg

-13.80

-10.40

-20

Finland

-11.40

-11.50

-16

Sweden

-25.20

-24.80

-17

Germnay

-2.30

-7.70

-14

Denmark

-18.50

-19.10

-20

Hungary

-10.20

-9.80

10

Czech Republic

1.20

4

9

Bulgaria

19.90

21

20

United Kingdom

-20.50

-21.20

-16

Slovakia

-7.50

-4.50

13

Estonia

14.30

16.80

11

Romania

-0.10

-1.60

19

Latvia

8.20

7.50

17

Lithuania

6.60

6.70

15

Figure PS03-2: GHG emissions, by source, Slovenia, 1986-2018
Sources: 

GHG Archive, Slovenian Environment Agency (2020)

Show data

CO2 [1000 t CO2 equiv.]

CH4 [1000 t CO2 equiv.]

N2O [1000 t CO2 equiv.]

F-gases [1000 t CO2 equiv.]

- HFC [1000 t CO2 equiv.]

- PFC [1000 t CO2 equiv.]

- SF6 [1000 t CO2 equiv.]

total [1000 t CO2 equiv.]

1986

16668.99

2613.59

841.25

242.96

0

233.19

9.77

20366.79

1987

16093.77

2595.76

845.95

277.63

0

267.86

9.77

19813.09

1988

15865.40

2596.06

806.58

225.04

0

215.27

9.77

19493.08

1989

15774.59

2605.07

767.25

228.34

0

217.41

10.94

19375.25

1990

15093.84

2543.98

754.35

217.42

0

207.59

9.83

18609.59

1991

14001.24

2448.48

700.90

139.05

0

129.40

9.64

17289.66

1992

14006.75

2465.38

761.47

137.85

0

128.18

9.67

17371.45

1993

14303.47

2355.84

725.78

170.21

31.41

128.25

10.54

17555.31

1994

14642.67

2349.97

781.28

170.67

31.65

128.18

10.84

17944.60

1995

15254.25

2377.04

829.81

173.16

32.89

128.14

12.13

18634.26

1996

15916.61

2334.71

859.97

170.41

29.86

127.67

12.88

19281.69

1997

16244.92

2350.32

876.57

175.93

34.48

128.19

13.25

19647.74

1998

15961.13

2402.47

875.64

171.94

31.09

128.08

12.77

19411.18

1999

15337.24

2405.10

871.20

175.08

31.42

128.29

15.36

18788.62

2000

15444.90

2498.41

903.36

190.93

46.17

129.75

15.01

19037.60

2001

16378.34

2475.32

891.60

207.38

62.75

129.26

15.37

19952.64

2002

16525.27

2546.97

818.96

230.22

78.61

135.07

16.54

20121.41

2003

16289.03

2508.64

790.68

255.76

99.23

139.44

17.09

19844.10

2004

16651.03

2457.41

767.41

280.16

122.00

140.69

17.47

20156.01

2005

16948.12

2431.64

771.23

305.76

145.64

142.13

18.00

20456.75

2006

17142.53

2378.22

783.06

321.45

169.25

134.26

17.93

20625.25

2007

17281.00

2404.59

790.59

313.10

195.91

99.68

17.51

20789.28

2008

18220.01

2283.61

752.36

258.47

224.37

14.74

19.37

21514.46

2009

16329.78

2189.34

744.67

266.32

243.91

5.24

17.16

19530.10

2010

16376.44

2157.64

735.56

285.57

257.95

9.64

17.99

19555.22

2011

16360.30

2149.57

747.13

308.61

270.31

20.16

18.15

19565.61

2012

15821.76

2103.53

750.22

329.33

294.88

18.11

16.34

19004.84

2013

15188.91

2047.63

722.45

348.64

316.17

15.31

17.16

18307.64

2014

13531.94

1946.78

730.36

365.94

333.53

15.22

17.19

16575.01

2015

13617.54

2003.60

752.78

376.98

343.75

15.74

17.49

16750.90

2016

14416.66

2041.54

760.72

388.70

351.48

19.78

17.44

17607.61

2017

14264.75

1994.41

735.20

372.40

339.14

17.45

15.81

17366.76

2018

14487.84

1936.16

753.48

324.65

293.23

15.59

15.83

17502.14

Figure PS03-3: Annual GHG emissions, by sector (share), Slovenia, 1986-2018
Sources: 

GHG Archive, Slovenian Environment Agency (2020)

Show data

transport [%]

energy industries [%]

industrial processes [%]

fuels in manufacturing industries and construction [%]

agriculture [%]

waste [%]

other sectors [%]

fugitive emissions from fuels [%]

other [%]

total [%]

transport [1000 t CO2 equiv.]

energy industries [1000 t CO2 equiv.]

industrial processes [1000 t CO2 equiv.]

fuels in manufacturing industries and construction [1000 t CO2 equiv.]

agriculture [1000 t CO2 equiv.]

waste [1000 t CO2 equiv.]

other sectors [1000 t CO2 equiv.]

fugitive emissions from fuels [1000 t CO2 equiv.]

other [1000 t CO2 equiv.]

total [1000 t CO2 equiv.]

1986

9.93

33.59

6.91

21.90

9.48

3.10

11.98

2.91

0.20

100

2022.43

6840.99

1407.96

4459.76

1930.56

630.76

2439.92

592.97

41.44

20366.79

1987

11.67

32.70

7.17

19.94

9.80

3.29

12.40

2.86

0.16

100

2312.00

6479.28

1421.57

3951.67

1941.52

652.07

2456.82

566.15

32.02

19813.09

1988

12.78

33.69

7.65

19.09

9.77

3.45

10.46

2.95

0.16

100

2491.14

6566.93

1491.66

3721.29

1904.80

671.54

2039.40

574.30

32.02

19493.08

1989

13.02

34.44

7.41

18.01

9.64

3.56

10.78

2.96

0.17

100

2522.74

6673.70

1436.61

3489.31

1867.08

690.70

2089.48

573.60

32.02

19375.25

1990

14.66

34.26

7.48

16.93

9.97

3.74

10.03

2.75

0.17

100

2727.85

6374.89

1392.86

3151.09

1855.44

696.60

1867.20

511.65

32.02

18609.59

1991

14.89

31.41

6.21

17.92

10.08

4.00

12.69

2.75

0.04

100

2575.26

5431.41

1073.96

3098.12

1743.42

691.07

2193.30

476.22

6.91

17289.66

1992

15.27

34.34

6.12

15.52

10.72

3.79

11.22

3.01

0.01

100

2652.83

5964.57

1063.72

2695.83

1862.75

657.96

1949.26

523.14

1.38

17371.45

1993

17.52

32.78

5.09

14.34

10.01

3.64

13.88

2.73

0.01

100

3075.82

5754.25

893.05

2517.98

1757.12

639.82

2436.09

479.78

1.38

17555.31

1994

19.07

30.86

5.96

14.99

9.89

3.59

13.08

2.57

0.01

100

3421.63

5536.86

1068.70

2689.46

1774.25

643.98

2347.68

460.65

1.38

17944.60

1995

20.35

30.72

5.76

14.13

9.52

3.47

13.42

2.62

0.01

100

3791.56

5725.08

1073.05

2633.90

1773.52

647.36

2501.09

487.31

1.38

18634.26

1996

22.84

27.63

5.57

12.96

8.91

3.39

16.25

2.43

0.01

100

4404.53

5327.36

1074.40

2499.08

1718.38

654.34

3132.78

469.42

1.38

19281.69

1997

22.74

29.26

5.67

11.39

8.54

3.52

16.31

2.56

0.01

100

4467.80

5749.27

1113.80

2237.57

1677.68

692.39

3205.53

502.32

1.38

19647.74

1998

19.86

30.85

5.63

11.83

8.84

3.72

16.68

2.57

0.01

100

3855.82

5988.41

1092.82

2296.86

1715.92

722.77

3236.88

498.99

2.70

19411.18

1999

19.51

28.15

5.95

12.28

9.21

3.96

18.39

2.54

0.02

100

3664.91

5289.14

1117.34

2307.03

1730.06

744.93

3454.58

477.75

2.89

18788.62

2000

20.00

29.39

6.11

11.96

9.57

4.05

16.43

2.48

0.02

100

3807.98

5594.44

1162.50

2276.95

1821.70

771.60

3127.05

472.30

3.08

19037.60

2001

19.69

31.63

6.11

11.12

9.02

3.94

16.13

2.34

0.02

100

3929.04

6311.78

1219.12

2218.25

1799.94

787.06

3217.61

466.58

3.27

19952.64

2002

19.14

32.62

6.10

11.18

9.24

3.88

15.27

2.53

0.02

100

3851.84

6564.32

1228.39

2250.53

1859.04

780.88

3073.12

510.03

3.27

20121.41

2003

20.11

31.69

6.54

10.92

8.92

4.00

15.09

2.71

0.02

100

3991.04

6289.38

1297.93

2167.01

1769.26

794.24

2993.57

538.41

3.27

19844.10

2004

20.55

31.86

6.71

11.34

8.51

3.82

14.52

2.67

0.02

100

4141.76

6421.87

1351.46

2286.41

1715.24

769.61

2927.65

538.59

3.42

20156.01

2005

21.59

31.52

6.98

12.15

8.47

3.62

13.08

2.57

0.02

100

4416.47

6448.20

1427.39

2485.13

1732.79

740.52

2676.64

526.28

3.33

20456.75

2006

22.48

31.54

7.14

12.55

8.41

3.45

11.82

2.61

0.02

100

4636.39

6504.66

1472.65

2588.37

1733.61

711.36

2437.33

537.54

3.33

20625.25

2007

25.11

32.35

7.12

11.28

8.61

3.21

9.68

2.62

0.02

100

5219.56

6725.75

1479.99

2345.08

1790.00

667.75

2012.78

544.89

3.48

20789.28

2008

28.56

30.21

6.25

10.77

7.97

2.79

10.98

2.45

0.02

100

6144.99

6498.68

1344.52

2317.59

1714.22

600.66

2363.18

527.06

3.56

21514.46

2009

27.22

31.80

5.17

10.02

8.84

2.78

11.49

2.66

0.02

100

5316.80

6210.67

1010.34

1956.36

1726.21

542.41

2244.69

519.28

3.34

19530.10

2010

26.91

32.42

5.18

9.80

8.67

2.73

11.60

2.67

0.01

100

5262.58

6339.70

1013.10

1916.08

1696.40

534.79

2267.92

521.75

2.89

19555.22

2011

29.12

32.50

5.26

8.78

8.57

2.76

10.27

2.72

0.02

100

5697.87

6359.33

1028.45

1718.28

1677.43

540.99

2008.51

531.38

3.37

19565.61

2012

30.38

31.85

5.56

8.68

8.74

2.79

9.26

2.72

0.02

100

5774.34

6052.79

1056.15

1650.11

1660.92

530.43

1759.13

517.58

3.38

19004.84

2013

29.88

31.54

6.13

8.98

8.99

2.81

9.15

2.51

0.02

100

5470.51

5773.73

1121.47

1643.86

1645.65

514.76

1675.80

458.84

3.02

18307.64

2014

32.55

26.83

7.00

9.95

10.22

2.92

8.33

2.17

0.02

100

5394.75

4447.90

1160.94

1649.90

1694.01

483.94

1380.87

358.94

3.75

16575.01

2015

32.04

27.23

6.83

9.50

10.35

2.94

8.87

2.21

0.02

100

5367.74

4561.54

1144.49

1591.12

1733.08

492.89

1485.94

370.40

3.70

16750.90

2016

32.59

27.99

6.49

9.08

9.97

2.77

8.83

2.26

0.02

100

5737.67

4929.20

1143.23

1598.04

1756.05

487.74

1554.98

397.06

3.64

17607.61

2017

31.94

28.30

6.85

9.67

9.91

2.75

8.20

2.35

0.02

100

5547.40

4915.34

1190.11

1678.56

1720.98

476.98

1424.86

408.40

4.14

17366.76

2018

33.28

27.42

6.78

10.44

9.84

2.52

7.47

2.23

0.02

100

5824.01

4799.91

1186.59

1827.79

1721.71

441.66

1306.86

389.69

3.91

17502.14

Figure PS03-4: GHG emissions, EU ETS and non-ETS, Slovenia, 2005-2018
Sources: 

GHG Archive, Slovenian Environment Agency (2020); Reports on discharge 2005-2015, REK (2020)

Show data

EU ETS emissions [1000 t CO2 eq]

non EU ETS emissions [1000 t CO2 eq]

2005

8720.55

11736.20

2006

8842.18

11783.07

2007

9048.63

11740.65

2008

8860.11

12654.36

2009

8067.02

11463.08

2010

8129.86

11425.35

2011

7994.55

11571.06

2012

7610.59

11394.25

2013

7386.31

10921.34

2014

6115.29

10459.73

2015

6109.59

10641.31

2016

6478.66

11128.95

2017

6570.03

10796.74

2018

6491.91

11010.23

Figure PS03-5: Non-ETS GHG emissions, by sector, Slovenia, 2013-2020
Sources: 

GHG Archive, Slovenian Environment Agency (2020); Reports on discharge 2005-2015, REK (2020)

Show data

transport [1000 t CO2 equiv.]

energy industries [1000 t CO2 equiv.]

industrial processes [1000 t CO2 equiv.]

fuels in manufacturing industries and construction [1000 t CO2 equiv.]

agriculture [1000 t CO2 equiv.]

waste [1000 t CO2 equiv.]

other sectors [1000 t CO2 equiv.]

other [1000 t CO2 equiv.]

total [1000 t CO2 equiv.]

allocated emissions [1001 t CO2 equiv.]

2013

5470.51

155.13

470.54

606.41

1645.65

514.76

1675.80

382.54

10921.34

12323.92

2014

5394.75

116.72

479.13

596.55

1694.01

483.94

1380.87

313.76

10459.73

12353.72

2015

5367.74

139.74

511.29

592.12

1733.08

492.89

1485.94

318.70

10641.50

12383.52

2016

5737.67

147.33

522.50

586.79

1756.05

487.74

1554.98

335.88

11128.95

12413.32

2017

5547.40

173.43

498.05

616.51

1720.98

476.98

1424.86

338.53

10796.74

12203.09

2018

5824.01

193.43

456.19

741.24

1721.71

441.66

1306.86

325.13

11010.23

12237.81

2019

12272.53

2020

12307.24


Goals

First commitment period (CP1), 2008-2012

For the first commitment period (2008-2012), the 15 States that were EU members in 1997, when the Kyoto Protocol was adopted, took on an 8 % reduction from the base-year target that was then redistributed among themselves. The differentiated targets are set out in Annex II to the Council Decision 2002/358/EC concerning the approval, on behalf of the European Community, of the Kyoto Protocol to the UNFCCC and the joint fulfillment of commitments thereunder.

Second commitment period (CP2), 2013-2020

The EU, its 28 Member States and Iceland agreed to a joint quantified emission reduction commitment of 80 % under the Kyoto Protocol's second commitment period (2013-2020). This is equivalent to a 20 % reduction compared with base-year levels.

EU greenhouse gas targets for 2020

The unilateral 20 % GHG reduction target, in the context of the EU Climate and Energy Package, corresponds to a 14 % decrease in emissions between 2005 and 2020, The target is to be achieved both in the sectors covered by the EU ETS (21 % reduction in EU ETS emissions compared with 2005 levels) and in the other sectors covered by national emission targets under the ESD.

The ESD targets (2020 percentage target compared with 2005) are presented in the table below.

Country

2020 target (%)

2018

2019

2020

Austria

-16

49,90

49,35

48,80

Belgium

-15

70,74

69,21

67,68

Bulgaria

20

28,27

28,54

28,80

Croatia

11

20,57

20,76

20,95

Cyprus

-5

5,94

5,94

5,94

Czechia

9

66,17

66,91

67,65

Denmark

-20

32,31

31,41

30,50

Estonia

11

6,42

6,44

6,47

Finland

-16

29,34

28,85

28,36

France

-14

369,35

364,32

359,29

Germany

-14

439,04

432,34

425,65

Greece

-4

60,59

60,92

61,24

Hungary

10

55,99

57,10

58,22

Ireland

-20

41,24

40,11

38,97

Italy

-13

298,34

296,38

294,41

Latvia

17

9,72

9,81

9,90

Lithuania

15

14,74

15,10

15,46

Luxembourg

-20

8,54

8,34

8,14

Malta

5

1,16

1,16

1,16

Netherlands

-16

111,59

109,31

107,04

Poland

14

199,86

201,10

202,34

Portugal

1

50,69

50,97

51,24

Romania

19

84,74

86,56

88,38

Slovakia

13

25,82

26,18

26,54

Slovenia

4

12,47

12,50

12,53

Spain

-10

217,99

216,07

214,16

Sweden

-17

38,48

37,84

37,20

United Kingdom

-16

336,14

331,62

327,10

Source: European Environment Agency (June 2020)

(https://www,eea,europa,eu/data-and-maps/indicators/greenhouse-gas-emission-trends-6/assessment-3)

EU greenhouse gas targets post 2020

In October 2015, the European Council adopted the '2030 climate and energy framework',

setting a binding target to cut emissions in the EU territory by at least 40 % below 1990 levels by 2030. To achieve this target of at least 40 %:

  • EU-ETS sectors would have to cut emissions by 43 % (compared with 2005);
  • non-ETS sectors would have to cut emissions by 30 % (compared with 2005).

The 2030 framework is consistent with the longer-term objective of the '2050 low-carbon economy roadmap', which sets the EU ambition to reduce its GHG emissions by 80 % compared with 1990, with milestones of 40 % by 2030 and 60 % by 2060, It is also a milestone for the EU’s contribution to the Paris Agreement, which was adopted in December 2015.

 

Related policy documents:

Commission Decision of 26 March 2013 on determining Member States’ annual emission allocations for the period from 2013 to 2020 pursuant to Decision No 406/2009/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council

Commission Implementing Decision of 31 October 2013 on the adjustments to Member States’ annual emission allocations for the period from 2013 to 2020 pursuant to Decision No 406/2009/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council

Decision No 406/2009/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the effort of Member States to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions to meet the Community’s greenhouse gas emission reduction commitments up to 2020

Conclusions on 2030 Climate and Energy Policy Framework The European Council endorsed 4 targets: - a binding EU target of 40% less greenhouse gas emissions by 2030, compared to 1990 - a target of at least 27% renewable energy consumption - a 27% energy efficiency increase - the completion of the internal energy market by achieving the existing electricity interconnection target of 10% and linking the energy islands - in particular the Baltic states and the Iberian Peninsula On energy security, the European Council endorsed further measures to reduce the EU's energy dependence and increase the security of its electricity and gas supplies,

Decision No 280/2004/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 February 2004 concerning a mechanism for monitoring Community greenhouse gas emissions and for implementing the Kyoto Protocol

Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change; adopted at COP3 in Kyoto, Japan, on 11 December 1997

REGULATION (EU) No 525/2013 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 21 May 2013 on a mechanism for monitoring and reporting greenhouse gas emissions and for reporting other information at national and Union level relevant to climate change and repealing Decision No 280/2004/EC

The Paris Agreement, Report of the Conference of the Parties on its twenty-first session, held in Paris from 30 November to 11 December 2015,

Presidency conclusions of the Brussels European Council of 8/9 March 2007

UNFCCC reporting guidelines on annual inventories


All EU countries fulfilled their commitments from the first Kyoto Protocol period. Old Member States (EU-15) had a common 2008–2012 period target: to reduce greenhouse emissions by 8% compared to the base year. Their target was exceeded by almost 4%. Within this common target, each EU-15 Member State had its individual target set in accordance with its relative wealth. Some of them had to reduce their emissions considerably, while others were allowed to increase them. In order to achieve their targets, four countries had to buy additional emission allowances (Austria, Denmark, Luxembourg and Spain). On the other hand, all new Member States achieved their Kyoto targets without buying additional allowances, with the Baltic states being the most successful in exceeding their targets. Overall, the Member States (EU-28) reduced their emissions by 19% compared to the base year, with sinks and international credits not being taken into account. For the achievement of its Kyoto target, Slovenia exceeded its target (-8%) by 3% by using the maximum level of allowed carbon sinks.

Total greenhouse gas emissions in Slovenia amounted to the equivalent of 17,502 Gg (gigagram = 1000 tonnes or 1 kilotonne of CO2) in 2018, which was 14.1% below the value in the base year of 1986 but 0.8% above the 2017 value. The greatest contributors to decreased emissions were the energy sector (-2.3%) and the fuel consumption sector in households and the commercial sector (-8.3%), while emissions from fuel combustion in the industry and in the transport sector were higher than in 2017 by 5.0% each.

In Slovenia, CO2 has the largest share (82.8% in 2018) of total GHG emissions. It is mostly generated in fuel combustion and industrial processes. It’s followed by methane (11.1%), originating from waste and agriculture, and nitrous oxide (4.3%), which is mostly generated in agriculture as well. Emissions of N2O from transport are notable as well. Although emissions of F-gases, such as hydrofluorocarbons (HFC), perfluorocarbons (PFC) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6), are very low, their contribution to global warming is still significant (1.9%) due to their strong greenhouse effect.

Covering more than 58% of Slovenia's land area in 2018, forests are an important factor in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Estimated sinks from the land use, land use change and forestry sector (LULUCF) decreased significantly after 2014 due to damage caused by adverse effects (glaze, strong winds) and increased sanitary logging and in 2018, this sector did not represent a sink for the first time, as emissions were 234 Gg CO2 eq.

For meeting the EU 2020 targets, the division of emissions included in the ETS and those not included in the ETS is important. Emissions within ETS, which include all larger electricity and heat producers and all energy-demanding industries, will be reduced in the future due to the reduction of available emission allowances available via auctions. In 2018, emissions from these sources in Slovenia were higher by 2.0% compared to the preceding year.

Emissions that are not included in the ETS are particularly important for Slovenia because they can thus be influenced by countries through measures and policies in respected fields. These emissions may not exceed the quantities allocated to individual countries by Decisions 406/2009 and 634/2013. For Slovenia, the 2018 ceiling was 12,238 Gg of CO2 equivalent. Emissions in Slovenia reached 11,010 Gg of CO2 equivalent, which was 10.0% below the emission ceiling for that year.

Among sectors outside the ETS, the most important is transport, which contributed 52.9% of all emissions in 2018. Within the transport sector, most emissions are contributed by road transport (99% in 20178. Emissions from transport were increasing steeply up to 2008, when they were 39% higher than in 2005. In 2009, they decreased due to the onset of the economic crisis and increased again in 2011 and 2012. In the period 2013–2015 they decreased slightly again, which can be contributed to higher environmental awareness and sustainable mobility. However due to the increased economic growth, emissions in the last three years increased again and were in 2018 31.9% higher than in 2005.

The next important source is agriculture, which contributed 15.6% of emissions. In 2018, emissions from this sector were the same as in the previous year and were by 0.6% below the 2005 levels. The main reason for reduced emissions was the intensification of livestock farming, resulting in a reduced number of livestock and improved manure management in pig farming.

With a share of 11.9%, the use of fuel in households and the commercial-institutional sector are the third most important source of GHG emissions outside the ETS. In 2018, these emissions were 8.3% lower than in the preceding year and by as much as 46.4% below the 2005 level. Such a reduction was largely a result of mild winters in recent years as well as the improved thermal insulation of buildings and the increased use of wood for heating, as CO2 from biomass is not taken into account.

Other sources that contribute to emissions outside the ETS are as follows: other use of fuels in industry (5.6%), waste management (4.0%), other process-related emissions (4.1%) and other sources (fugitive emissions, the remainder of the energy sector, etc. [4.7%]).

The first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol was 2008–2012. The second commitment period began in 2013 and will end in 2020. Currently, the Kyoto Protocol covers less than a third of greenhouse gas emissions. Emission growth is the most rapid in the fastest-growing economies of developing countries. Without their participation, global warming will be impossible to halt.

In December 2015, 195 countries gathered at the climate conference in Paris. They adopted a universal, legally binding agreement to limit global warming. The agreement foresees a transition to a low-carbon society at the global level, extreme reduction in fossil fuel consumption and an increase in average global temperature by no more than 2oC compared to pre-industrial values. The agreement entered into force on 4 November 2016 and will limit emissions after 2020.

The policy of change pursued by the European Union is ambitious and involves all EU Member States. The adopted EU targets by 2020 are as follows:

  • to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 20%;
  • to increase the use of renewable energy sources in final energy consumption by 20%;
  • to achieve a 10% share of biofuels in the total amount of fuels used for transport,
  • to increase energy efficiency by 20%.

To meet the commitments from the Kyoto Protocol and to achieve a 20% cut in GHG emissions, Slovenia introduced numerous measures. Most measures are described in the Operational programme to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the period 2013–2020. In addition, the reduction of GHG emissions is also supported by the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency for the period 2008–2016 (the Government of the Republic of Slovenia, 2008) and the National Action Plan for Renewable Energy sources for the period 2010–2020 (the Government of the Republic of Slovenia, 2010). At the EU level, there is also the Roadmap for moving to a competitive low-carbon economy in 2050 (European Commission, 2011).



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