KAZALCI OKOLJA

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The European Community has fulfilled its obligations from the first period of the Kyoto Protocol, as total GHG emissions in the first commitment period 2008–2012, with no sinks taken into account, were approximately 19% below the base year values. By imposing the maximum level of allowed sinks, Slovenia has exceeded the goal by about 3%.

In 2017, Slovenian GHG emissions slightly decreased and were by 1.3% lower than in 2016. Therefore, Slovenia is on track to achieve the EU goal, as non-ETS GHG emissions in 2017 were about 10.8% below the allocated emissions for 2017.


This indicator shows the trends in greenhouse gas emissions in Slovenia, the main sources of emissions (by category and sector) and the comparison with other European Union countries (the EU-28). Emissions included in the emission trading system (EU ETS), as well as those not included, are presented. Emissions are expressed in Gg COequivalent.

Greenhouse gas emissions monitored within the emission inventory include carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O ), F-gasses (such as hydrofluorocarbons (HFC), perfluorocarbons (PFC) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6). Greenhouse gas emissions are calculated in accordance with the IPCC methodology, which enables international comparability of data. Emissions are being calculated for transport, energy, industrial processes and the use of products, fuels in industry, fuels in households and commercial use, agriculture and waste. Land use, land use change and forestry represent a special category.

 


Charts

Figure PS03-1: Change in GHG emissions, 2008-2012, Slovenia, EU-15 and EU countries (GHG totals do not include from Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF)
Sources: 

Source: UNFCCC; The draft 'Annual European Union greenhouse gas inventory 1990-2012; National GHG emissions, Slovenian Environment Agency, 2015.

Show data

Change in %

average change in emissions in period 2008-2012

Spain

24.96

Portugal

19.64

Greece

12.34

Ireland

10.82

Austria

4.77

Slovenia

-2.82

Italy

-3.61

Finland

-4.25

Netherlands

-5.85

Luxembourg

-9.36

France

-10.11

EU-15

-11.38

Denmark

-14.75

Sweden

-14.99

Germany

-24.11

United Kingdom

-24.19

Poland

-29.48

Czech Republic

-30.00

Slovakia

-36.28

Hungary

-40.63

Bulgaria

-52.56

Romania

-54.33

Estonia

-54.91

Latvia

-55.80

Lithuania

-56.37

Figure PS03-2: GHG emissions, by source, Slovenia, 1986-2017
Sources: 
GHG emissions, Slovenian Environment Agency (2019)
Show data

1000 t CO2 equivalents

CO2

CH4

N2O

F-gases

- HFC

- PFC

- SF6

total

1986

16668.97

2679.52

823.09

242.96

0

233.19

9.77

20414.54

1987

16093.74

2656.80

828.25

277.63

0

267.86

9.77

19856.42

1988

15865.38

2651.78

788.98

225.04

0

215.27

9.77

19531.18

1989

15774.57

2656.50

749.73

228.34

0

217.41

10.94

19409.15

1990

15093.82

2590.81

737.24

217.42

0

207.59

9.83

18639.28

1991

14001.22

2496.14

683.74

139.05

0

129.40

9.64

17320.15

1992

14006.73

2531.29

743.25

137.85

0

128.18

9.67

17419.12

1993

14303.46

2440.04

707.60

170.21

31.41

128.25

10.54

17621.30

1994

14642.65

2450.00

761.96

170.67

31.65

128.18

10.84

18025.28

1995

15254.57

2484.40

808.59

173.15

32.88

128.14

12.13

18720.72

1996

15916.86

2430.02

838.39

170.39

29.85

127.67

12.88

19355.67

1997

16245.06

2431.50

855.38

175.91

34.46

128.19

13.25

19707.85

1998

15961.29

2477.93

853.30

171.85

31.00

128.08

12.77

19464.38

1999

15337.41

2474.02

847.04

174.89

31.24

128.29

15.36

18833.37

2000

15445.06

2562.80

877.03

190.64

45.88

129.75

15.01

19075.52

2001

16378.49

2544.50

864.29

206.89

62.27

129.26

15.37

19994.17

2002

16525.40

2630.76

790.34

229.50

77.89

135.07

16.54

20176.00

2003

16289.17

2592.78

763.21

254.75

98.22

139.44

17.09

19899.91

2004

16651.15

2546.42

740.58

278.85

120.69

140.69

17.47

20217.01

2005

16948.24

2523.16

744.08

303.99

143.86

142.13

18.00

20519.46

2006

17142.31

2488.42

757.34

319.11

166.92

134.26

17.93

20707.17

2007

17278.87

2498.80

759.56

309.93

192.74

99.68

17.51

20847.16

2008

18215.73

2380.38

722.55

254.10

219.99

14.74

19.37

21572.75

2009

16324.66

2299.65

715.86

261.38

238.98

5.24

17.16

19601.55

2010

16368.68

2271.56

705.90

279.78

252.15

9.64

17.99

19625.91

2011

16354.09

2261.22

717.69

301.79

263.48

20.16

18.15

19634.79

2012

15812.59

2209.11

720.59

320.00

285.55

18.11

16.34

19062.29

2013

15178.76

2150.99

692.98

336.44

303.96

15.31

17.16

18359.17

2014

13524.34

2048.71

699.34

353.15

320.74

15.22

17.19

16625.56

2015

13612.12

2112.80

719.92

374.96

341.73

15.74

17.49

16819.79

2016

14413.68

2151.74

726.31

389.55

352.33

19.78

17.44

17681.28

2017

14259.41

2101.69

701.65

390.74

357.48

17.45

15.81

17453.50

Figure PS03-3: Annual GHG emissions, by sector, Slovenia, 1986-2017
Sources: 
GHG emissions, Slovenian Environment Agency (2019)
Show data

1000 t CO2 ekviv.

transport

energy industries

industrial processes

fuels in manufacturing industries and construction

agriculture

waste

other sectors

fugitive emissions from fuels

other

total

transport

energy industries

industrial processes

fuels in manufacturing industries and construction

agriculture

waste

other sectors

fugitive emissions from fuels

other

total

1986

2022.43

6840.99

1407.96

4459.76

1914.83

710.27

2423.90

592.95

41.44

20414.54

9.91

33.51

6.90

21.85

9.38

3.48

11.87

2.90

0.20

100

1987

2312.00

6479.28

1421.57

3951.67

1926.26

726.70

2440.80

566.13

32.02

19856.42

11.64

32.63

7.16

19.90

9.70

3.66

12.29

2.85

0.16

100

1988

2491.14

6566.93

1491.66

3721.29

1889.63

740.85

2023.38

574.28

32.02

19531.18

12.75

33.62

7.64

19.05

9.67

3.79

10.36

2.94

0.16

100

1989

2522.74

6673.70

1436.61

3489.31

1852.00

755.72

2073.46

573.58

32.02

19409.15

13.00

34.38

7.40

17.98

9.54

3.89

10.68

2.96

0.16

100

1990

2727.85

6374.89

1392.86

3151.09

1840.76

757.01

1851.18

511.63

32.02

18639.28

14.63

34.20

7.47

16.91

9.88

4.06

9.93

2.74

0.17

100

1991

2575.26

5431.41

1073.96

3098.12

1728.97

754.07

2175.24

476.21

6.91

17320.15

14.87

31.36

6.20

17.89

9.98

4.35

12.56

2.75

0.04

100

1992

2652.83

5964.57

1063.72

2695.83

1847.53

740.97

1929.16

523.12

1.38

17419.12

15.23

34.24

6.11

15.48

10.61

4.25

11.07

3.00

0.01

100

1993

3075.82

5754.25

893.05

2517.98

1742.23

742.87

2413.96

479.76

1.38

17621.30

17.46

32.66

5.07

14.29

9.89

4.22

13.70

2.72

0.01

100

1994

3421.63

5536.86

1068.70

2689.46

1758.50

764.61

2323.50

460.63

1.38

18025.28

18.98

30.72

5.93

14.92

9.76

4.24

12.89

2.56

0.01

100

1995

3791.56

5725.08

1073.04

2633.90

1756.50

777.08

2474.88

487.30

1.38

18720.72

20.25

30.58

5.73

14.07

9.38

4.15

13.22

2.60

0.01

100

1996

4404.53

5327.36

1074.39

2499.08

1701.23

773.37

3104.92

469.40

1.38

19355.67

22.76

27.52

5.55

12.91

8.79

4.00

16.04

2.43

0.01

100

1997

4467.80

5749.27

1113.78

2237.57

1661.09

798.63

3176.04

502.29

1.38

19707.85

22.67

29.17

5.65

11.35

8.43

4.05

16.12

2.55

0.01

100

1998

3855.82

5988.41

1092.73

2296.86

1698.50

824.62

3205.78

498.96

2.70

19464.38

19.81

30.77

5.61

11.80

8.73

4.24

16.47

2.56

0.01

100

1999

3664.91

5289.14

1117.15

2307.03

1711.11

841.55

3421.88

477.71

2.89

18833.37

19.46

28.08

5.93

12.25

9.09

4.47

18.17

2.54

0.02

100

2000

3807.98

5594.44

1162.21

2276.95

1800.85

864.98

3092.78

472.26

3.08

19075.52

19.96

29.33

6.09

11.94

9.44

4.53

16.21

2.48

0.02

100

2001

3929.04

6311.78

1218.63

2218.25

1778.53

887.36

3180.77

466.54

3.27

19994.17

19.65

31.57

6.09

11.09

8.90

4.44

15.91

2.33

0.02

100

2002

3851.84

6564.32

1227.67

2250.53

1835.71

891.56

3041.10

509.99

3.27

20176.00

19.09

32.54

6.08

11.15

9.10

4.42

15.07

2.53

0.02

100

2003

3991.04

6289.38

1296.93

2167.01

1746.46

900.75

2966.72

538.37

3.27

19899.91

20.06

31.61

6.52

10.89

8.78

4.53

14.91

2.71

0.02

100

2004

4141.76

6421.87

1350.15

2286.41

1692.43

876.44

2905.98

538.55

3.42

20217.01

20.49

31.76

6.68

11.31

8.37

4.34

14.37

2.66

0.02

100

2005

4416.47

6448.20

1425.61

2485.13

1709.38

847.59

2657.51

526.24

3.33

20519.46

21.52

31.42

6.95

12.11

8.33

4.13

12.95

2.56

0.02

100

2006

4636.05

6504.66

1470.32

2588.37

1709.17

819.77

2438.00

537.50

3.33

20707.17

22.39

31.41

7.10

12.50

8.25

3.96

11.77

2.60

0.02

100

2007

5217.33

6725.75

1476.82

2345.08

1762.86

778.89

1992.10

544.85

3.48

20847.16

25.03

32.26

7.08

11.25

8.46

3.74

9.56

2.61

0.02

100

2008

6140.61

6498.68

1340.14

2317.59

1686.41

697.42

2361.33

527.02

3.56

21572.75

28.46

30.12

6.21

10.74

7.82

3.23

10.95

2.44

0.02

100

2009

5311.57

6210.67

1005.40

1956.36

1697.55

638.21

2259.21

519.24

3.34

19601.55

27.10

31.68

5.13

9.98

8.66

3.26

11.53

2.65

0.02

100

2010

5254.71

6339.70

1007.31

1916.08

1666.89

629.91

2286.72

521.71

2.89

19625.91

26.77

32.30

5.13

9.76

8.49

3.21

11.65

2.66

0.01

100

2011

5691.57

6359.33

1021.62

1718.28

1648.12

633.95

2027.21

531.34

3.37

19634.79

28.99

32.39

5.20

8.75

8.39

3.23

10.32

2.71

0.02

100

2012

5765.08

6052.79

1046.81

1650.11

1631.43

615.65

1779.49

517.54

3.38

19062.29

30.24

31.75

5.49

8.66

8.56

3.23

9.34

2.72

0.02

100

2013

5460.26

5773.73

1109.27

1643.86

1616.31

596.47

1697.45

458.80

3.02

18359.17

29.74

31.45

6.04

8.95

8.80

3.25

9.25

2.50

0.02

100

2014

5387.07

4447.90

1148.15

1649.90

1663.12

563.82

1402.93

358.91

3.75

16625.56

32.40

26.75

6.91

9.92

10.00

3.39

8.44

2.16

0.02

100

2015

5362.35

4561.54

1142.46

1591.12

1700.22

577.78

1510.25

370.36

3.70

16819.79

31.88

27.12

6.79

9.46

10.11

3.44

8.98

2.20

0.02

100

2016

5734.29

4929.20

1144.08

1598.04

1722.08

571.87

1581.06

397.02

3.64

17681.28

32.43

27.88

6.47

9.04

9.74

3.23

8.94

2.25

0.02

100

2017

5541.37

4915.34

1208.44

1678.56

1688.16

557.05

1452.08

408.36

4.14

17453.50

31.75

28.16

6.92

9.62

9.67

3.19

8.32

2.34

0.02

100

Figure PS03-4: GHG emissions, EU ETS and non-ETS, Slovenia, 2005-2017
Sources: 
GHG Archive, Slovenian Environment Agency (2019)
; Reports on discharge 2005-2015, REK (2019)
Show data

1000 t CO2 ekviv.

EU ETS emissions

non EU ETS emissions

2005

8720.55

11798.91

2006

8842.18

11864.99

2007

9048.63

11798.53

2008

8860.11

12712.65

2009

8067.02

11534.52

2010

8129.86

11496.05

2011

7994.55

11640.24

2012

7610.59

11451.69

2013

7386.31

10972.86

2014

6115.29

10510.27

2015

6109.59

10710.20

2016

6478.66

11202.62

2017

6570.03

10883.47

Figure PS03-5: Non-ETS GHG emissions, by sector, Slovenia, 2013-2020
Sources: 
GHG Archive, Slovenian Environment Agency (2019)
; Reports on discharge 2005-2015, REK (2019)
Show data

1000 t CO2 ekviv.

transport

energy industries

industrial processes

fuels in manufacturing industries and construction

agriculture

waste

other sectors

other

total

allocated emissions

2013

5460.26

155.13

458.33

606.41

1616.31

596.47

1697.45

382.50

10972.86

12323.92

2014

5387.07

116.72

466.34

596.55

1663.12

563.82

1402.93

313.72

10510.27

12353.72

2015

5362.35

139.74

509.26

592.12

1700.22

577.78

1510.25

318.66

10710.38

12383.52

2016

5734.29

147.33

523.36

586.79

1722.08

571.87

1581.06

335.84

11202.62

12413.32

2017

5541.37

173.43

516.38

616.51

1688.16

557.05

1452.08

338.49

10883.47

12203.09

2018

12237.81

2019

12272.53

2020

12307.24


Goals

In 1992, the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was adopted by countries worldwide. Discussions within this framework addressed limiting the increase in global temperature and the mitigation of climate change. The period 2008–2012 was set as the first commitment period. As a signatory of the Kyoto Protocol, Slovenia was obliged to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 8% in the period 2008–2012 compared to the base year of 1986.

Although there is no global agreement that would limit emissions by 2020, the EU set a goal of a 20% cut in GHG emissions by 2020 compared to 1990. In sectors included in the ETS, it will be achieved by gradually reducing the number of emission allowances available via auctioning. In sectors not included in the ETS, an individual target was set for each country taking into account its gross domestic product (GDP). Thus, the richest countries will be obliged to cut their emissions by up to 20% relative to 2005, while some of the poorest countries will be allowed to increase their emissions. For each year in the period 2013–2020, an emission ceiling was imposed on each Member State. These individual targets were defined by Decision 406/2009 and adjusted by Decision 634/2013. The final targets are shown in figure and table PS3-1. In accordance with this Decision, Slovenia may increase its emissions from sectors outside the ETS by 4% compared to 2005, the base year for the EU target.

 

Figure PS3-6: GHG emissions targets by 2020

COUNTRY

Kyoto 2008–2012 targets

2020 targets

Austria

-13%

- 16%

Belgium

-7.50%

-15%

Bulgaria

-8%

20%

Croatia

-5%

-16%

Czech Republic

-8%

9%

Cyprus

 -

-5%

Denmark

-21%

-20%

Estonia

-8%

11%

Finland

0%

-16%

France

0%

-14%

Germany

-21%

-14%

Greece

25%

-4%

Hungary

-6%

10%

Iceland

-10%

 -

Ireland

13%

-20%

Italy

-6.50%

-13%

Latvia

-8%

17%

Lichtenstein

-8%

 -

Lithuania

-8%

15%

Luxembourg

-28%

-20%

Malta

 -

5%

Netherlands

-6%

-16%

Norway

1%

 -

Poland

-6%

14%

Portugal

27%

1%

Romania

-8%

19%

Slovakia

-8%

13%

Slovenia

-8%

4%

Spain

15%

-10%

Sweden

4%

-17%

Turkey

 -

 -

United Kingdom

-12.50 %

-16%

EU-15 (Member States before 2004)

-8%

 -

EU-28

-

-10%

 

Source: Decision No 406/2009/EC on the effort of Member States to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions to meet the Community's greenhouse gas emission reduction commitments up to 2020 and the Kyoto Protocol


All EU countries fulfilled their commitments from the first Kyoto Protocol period. Old Member States (EU-15) had a common 2008–2012 period target: to reduce greenhouse emissions by 8% compared to the base year. Their target was exceeded by almost 4%. Within this common target, each EU-15 Member State had its individual target set in accordance with its relative wealth. Some of them had to reduce their emissions considerably, while others were allowed to increase them. In order to achieve their targets, four countries had to buy additional emission allowances (Austria, Denmark, Luxembourg and Spain). On the other hand, all new Member States achieved their Kyoto targets without buying additional allowances, with the Baltic states being the most successful in exceeding their targets. Overall, the Member States (EU-28) reduced their emissions by 19% compared to the base year, with sinks and international credits not being taken into account. For the achievement of its Kyoto target, Slovenia exceeded its target (-8%) by 3% by using the maximum level of allowed carbon sinks.

Total greenhouse gas emissions in Slovenia amounted to the equivalent of 17,435 Gg (gigagram = 1000 tonnes or 1 kilotonne of CO2) in 2017, which was 14.5% below the value in the base year of 1986 and 1.3% below the 2016 value. The greatest contributors to decreased emissions were the transport sector (-3.3%) and the fuel consumption sector in households and the commercial sector (-8.2%), while in the industry, emissions were higher than in 2016; from fuel combustion by 5.0% and from industrial processes by 5.6%.

In Slovenia, CO2 has the largest share (81.7% in 2017) of total GHG emissions. It is mostly generated in fuel combustion and industrial processes. It’s followed by methane (12.0%), originating from waste and agriculture, and nitrous oxide (4.0%), which is mostly generated in agriculture as well. Emissions of N2O from transport are notable as well. Although emissions of F-gases, such as hydrofluorocarbons (HFC), perfluorocarbons (PFC) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6), are very low, their contribution to global warming is still significant (2.2%) due to their strong greenhouse effect.

Covering more than 58% of Slovenia's land area in 2017, forests are an important factor in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Estimated sinks from the land use, land use change and forestry sector (LULUCF) decreased significantly after 2014 due to damage caused by adverse effects (glaze, strong winds) and increased sanitary logging, and were in 2017 with -1.524 Gg CO2 eq. by 68.6% lower than in the base year 1986. Despite the importance of forests as CO2 sinks, the Member States will not be allowed to use them in meeting their emission reduction targets by 2020.

For meeting the EU 2020 targets, the division of emissions included in the ETS and those not included in the ETS is important. Emissions within ETS, which include all larger electricity and heat producers and all energy-demanding industries, will be reduced in the future due to the reduction of available emission allowances available via auctions. In 2017, emissions from these sources in Slovenia were higher by 1.4% compared to the preceding year.

Emissions that are not included in the ETS are particularly important for Slovenia because they can thus be influenced by countries through measures and policies in respected fields. These emissions may not exceed the quantities allocated to individual countries by Decisions 406/2009 and 634/2013. For Slovenia, the 2017 ceiling was 12,203 Gg of CO2 equivalent. Emissions in Slovenia reached 10,883 Gg of CO2 equivalent, which was 10.8% below the emission ceiling for that year.

Among sectors outside the ETS, the most important is transport, which contributed 50.9% of all emissions in 2017. Within the transport sector, most emissions are contributed by road transport (99% in 2017). Emissions from transport were increasing steeply up to 2008, when they were 39% higher than in 2005. In 2009, they decreased due to the onset of the economic crisis and increased again in 2011 and 2012. In the period 2013–2015 they decreased slightly again, which can be contributed to higher environmental awareness and sustainable mobility. However due to the increased economic growth, emissions in the last two years increased again and were in 2017 25.5% higher than in 2005.

The next important source is agriculture, which contributed 15.5% of emissions. In 2017, emissions from agriculture decreased by 2.0% compared to the preceding year and were by 1.2% below the 2005 levels. The main reason for reduced emissions was the intensification of livestock farming, resulting in a reduced number of livestock and improved manure management in pig farming.

With a share of 13.3%, the use of fuel in households and the commercial-institutional sector are the third most important source of GHG emissions outside the ETS. In 2017, these emissions were 8.2% lower than in the preceding year and by as much as 40.1% below the 2005 level. Such a reduction was largely a result of mild winters in recent years as well as the increased use of wood for heating, as CO2 from biomass is not taken into account.

Other sources that contribute to emissions outside the ETS are as follows: other use of fuels in industry (5.7%), waste management (5.1%), other process-related emissions (4.7%) and other sources (fugitive emissions, the remainder of the energy sector, etc. [4.7%]).

The first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol was 2008–2012. The second commitment period began in 2013 and will end in 2020. Currently, the Kyoto Protocol covers less than a third of greenhouse gas emissions. Emission growth is the most rapid in the fastest-growing economies of developing countries. Without their participation, global warming will be impossible to halt.

In December 2015, 195 countries gathered at the climate conference in Paris. They adopted a universal, legally binding agreement to limit global warming. The agreement foresees a transition to a low-carbon society at the global level, extreme reduction in fossil fuel consumption and an increase in average global temperature by no more than 2oC compared to pre-industrial values. The agreement entered into force on 4 November 2016 and will limit emissions after 2020.

The policy of change pursued by the European Union is ambitious and involves all EU Member States. The adopted EU targets by 2020 are as follows:

to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 20%;

to increase the use of renewable energy sources in final energy consumption by 20%;

to achieve a 10% share of biofuels in the total amount of fuels used for transport,

to increase energy efficiency by 20%.

To meet the commitments from the Kyoto Protocol and to achieve a 20% cut in GHG emissions, Slovenia introduced numerous measures. Most measures are described in the Operational programme to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the period 2013–2020. In addition, the reduction of GHG emissions is also supported by the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency for the period 2008–2016 (the Government of the Republic of Slovenia, 2008) and the National Action Plan for Renewable Energy sources for the period 2010–2020 (the Government of the Republic of Slovenia, 2010). At the EU level, there is also the Roadmap for moving to a competitive low-carbon economy in 2050 (European Commission, 2011).

 

 


Source data base
GHG emissions, Slovenian Environment Agency
Date of data source summarization
01.04.2017
Source data base
GHG Archive, Slovenian Environment Agency
Date of data source summarization
15.04.2017
Source data base
Reports on discharge 2005-2015, REK
Date of data source summarization
27.10.2016

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