In Slovenia, the breeding of indigenous domestic animals is becoming less and less attractive, and as many as ten out of 11 native breeds and one indigenous race of domestic animals are endangered. The share of introduced animal breeds and cross-breeds with alien breeds has been increasing. The pressure of introduced breeds is successfully faced in particular by breeds and races where adaptation to natural conditions is particularly important because of the method of breeding (Jezersko-Solčava sheep, Carniolan bee). Nine out of 16 traditional breeds are also endangered.
The indicator shows breeds and race of individual species of domestic animals, trends in the number of breeders and farmers involved in the gene bank, trend in the number of breeding female and male animals and farmers included in the gene bank, trend in the number of animals and breeders who applied for agri-environmental payments - breeding of indigenous and traditional breeds of farm animals, and the distribution of breeds on indigenous, traditional and introduced animals. In cattle, the situation is presented by the number of first inseminations by bulls of individual breeds, which is a good indicator of the number of breeding females, and the use of breeding males. As regards the origin, the breeds and race of domestic animals were divided into native, traditional and introduced ones, and as regards endangered species they were divided into endangered and non- endangered.
The indigenous domestic animals are those breeds which occurred in the territory of Slovenia. The Slovenian bee Apis mellifera Carnica (Carniolan bee) is also an indigenous race. Indigenous breeds are stated by names of in the Livestock-Breeding Act which sets out the procedure for their recognition. Traditional breeds are those breeds of domestic animals which have adapted to climate and other conditions of a certain area. In the Republic of Slovenia, traditional breeds include those which are under continuous breeding and selection supervision at least fifty years in case of horses, donkeys or cattle, or thirty years for other species. Introduced breeds are breeds of domestic animals that have occurred elsewhere and have not yet adapted to climate and other conditions in Slovenia, or are not under permanent breeding and selection supervision at least fifty years in case of horses, donkeys or cattle, or thirty years for other species. The level of endangered breeds was taken from the register if breeds with a zoo-technical evaluation.
Public service tasks of gene bank in animal husbandry, 2006; Central cattle breeding database, 2009; The State of Farm Animal Genetic Resources in Slovenia, 2003.
|Indigenous – total||number||1||0||1||3||0||1||0||4||1||0|
|Indigenous – endangered||number||1||0||1||3||0||1||0||3||1||0|
|Traditional – total||number||6||0||2||2||0||3||0||1||2||0|
|Traditional – endangered||number||4||0||0||2||0||1||0||0||2||0|
|Indigenous – total||number||1|
|Indigenous – endangered||number||0|
|Traditional – total||number||0|
|Traditional – endangered||number||0|
Public service tasks of gene bank in animal husbandry, 2006; The State of Farm Animal Genetic Resources in Slovenia, 2003.
|breeding females and males - 2001||breeding females and males – 2004||breeders – 2001||breeders - 2004|
|Horses – total||number||320||368||185||205|
|Horses – Lipizzaner||number||51||26|
|Slovenski hladnokrvni konj||number||223||139|
|Pigs: the Krško polje pig||number||37||38||3||3|
|Sheep – total||number||2570||2602||57||57|
|Goats: the Drežnica goat||number||183||208||26||26|
|Hens: the Styrian hen (variety: partridge-coloured)||number||186||323||4||4|
Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Food, Agency of the Republic of Slovenia for Agricultural Markets and Rural Development , 2009.
|animals - 2004||animals - 2005||animals - 2006||animals - 2007||animals - 2008||No. of breeders - 2004||No. of breeders - 2005||No. of breeders - 2006||No. of breeders - 2007||No. of breeders - 2008|
|Horses – total||number||2392||2837||3105||3160||3207||799||876||879||884||860|
|Horses – Lipizzaner||number||504||542||608||602||587||87||81||80||85||83|
|Slovenski hladnokrvni konj||number||1520||1854||2009||2022||2053||589||647||648||636||616|
|Pigs: the Krško polje pig||number||292||487||489||592||566||30||46||47||51||48|
|Sheep – total||number||6281||6884||7230||7773||7693||167||171||169||192||183|
|Goats: the Drežnica goat||number||210||282||255||279||288||16||19||19||17||17|
|Hens: the Styrian hen (variety: partridge-coloured)||number||410||345||492||752||360||9||5||3||3||2|
Central cattle breeding database, Results of Dairy and Beef Recording, 2008.
|Belgian Blue and White||number||np||np||np||np||np||np||np||123||909||3614|
|Belgian Blue and White||number||6432||7275||7663||7714||8536||7971||6720||5539||4186|
Central cattle breeding database, Results of Dairy and Beef Recording, 2008.
- preserve, to the highest extent possible, biological diversity in animal husbandry which is the basis for food production, conservation of landscape diversity and securing income on farms
- special care must be paid to locally adapted breeds and race, i.e. to indigenous and the traditional ones.
Data for Slovenia:
Objectives summarized by: Act Ratifying the Convention on Biological Diversity (Rio de Janeiro, 1992) (OG RS, No. 30/96), Livestock-Breeding Act (OG RS, No. 18/02) and Rules on preserving biodiversity in livestock breeding (OG RS, No. 90/04).
Original database: CENTRAL CATTLE BREEDING DATABASE; The Register of Breeds with a Zootechnical Assessment; Register of animals and breeders who have applied for agri-environmental payments – breeding indigenous and traditional breeds of domestic animals.
Data administrator: Agricultural institute of Slovenia; Biotechnical Faculty, Zootechnical Department, Public service tasks of gene bank in animal husbandry; Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Food of the Republic of Slovenia, Agency of the Republic of Slovenia for Agricultural Markets and Rural Development.
Data acquisition date for this indicator: The indicator was renewed in November 2009. Original data, which we used, were processed at the primary source on 31 December 2008 (Central CATTLE breeding database), in January 2009 (The Register of Breeds with a Zootechnical Assessment) and in June 2009 (Agency of the Republic of Slovenia for Agricultural Markets and Rural Development).
Methodology and frequency of data collection for the indicator: Central CATTLE breeding database contains data on the breed and the origin of the animals, inseminations, fecundity and production characteristics, transhumance and other. Most of the basic data are collected by the regional institutes of the Chamber of Agriculture and Forestry, and the database is administered by the Agricultural institute of Slovenia. Data are collected and refreshed daily or monthly.
Public service tasks of gene bank in animal husbandry manages the gene bank and keeps The Register of Breeds with a Zootechnical Assessment. The latter is refreshed annually. A detailed description of the situation is covered by the publication Stanje živalskih genskih virov v slovenskem kmetijstvu (The Situation of Animal Gene Sources in Slovenian Agriculture) and by other materials on their website.
Agency of the Republic of Slovenia for Agricultural Markets and Rural Development keeps the register of animals and breeders who have applied for agri-environmental payments – breeding indigenous and traditional breeds of domestic animals. We obtain the data once a year.
Data processing methodology: Breeds and race of domestic animals have been divided according to origin (indigenous, traditional, and introduced) and endangerment (endangered and non-endangered). We summarized the level of endangerment of the breeds from The Register of Breeds with a Zootechnical Assessment, where the level of endangerment is assessed by marks from 1-critical, 2- endangered, 3- vulnerable, 4-at risk and 5- non-endangered (by the Rules on preserving biodiversity in livestock breeding). In the assessment for the purpose of this indicator, we treated the breeds, assessed with marks from 1 to 4 as endangered, and the breeds with the mark 5 as non-endangered. In 2008, we assessed the level of endangerment also for exotic breeds, which are under Slovenian breeding and selection control. Agency of the Republic of Slovenia for Agricultural Markets and Rural Development keeps the register of animals and breeders on the basis of applications for agri-environmental payments – breeding indigenous and traditional breeds of domestic animals. All animals are included there, not only purebred.
Information concerning data quality:
- Indicator advantages and disadvantages: More than 95% of all cattle in Slovenia are registered in the Central cattle breeding database, and principally all herd animals are registered. Data on the number of breeders and animals of each breed, included in the gene bank, in The Register of Breeds with a Zootechnical Assessment after the year 2004 are no longer reliable therefore we did not indicate the data on the number of breeders and animals in the gene bank for later years. We have, however, introduced a new review on the basis of applications for breeding indigenous and traditional breeds of domestic animals, in which all animals are included, not only purebred.
- Relevance, accuracy, robustness, uncertainty:
Reliability of the indicator (archival data): data are reliable.
Uncertainty of the indicator (scenarios/projections): Scenarios and projections are not available.
- Overall assessment (1 = no major comments, 3 = data to be considered with reservation):
Completeness over time: 1
Completeness over space: 1
Other sources and literature:
- Results of Dairy and Beef Recording, Slovenia 2008, 2009. Ljubljana, Agricultural institute of Slovenia.
- The State of Farm Animal Genetic Resources in Slovenia, 2003. Domžale: Biotechnical Faculty, Zootechnical Department.