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Gross nitrogen surplus in agriculture decreased.



Charts

Figure KM22-1: The structure of input of nitrogen on agricultural land in Slovenia
Sources: 

Agricultural Institute of Slovenia, 2014

Show data
1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
Livestock manure t N 40195 37637 37502 38405 37646 37286 37900 38655 41091 40318
mineral fertilisers t N 38938 33376 33944 32235 31296 33999 34801 34380 34159 34765
deposition t N 8338 8291 8064 7874 7702 7414 7364 7479 7634 7644
biological fixation t N 2087 2060 1890 2187 1929 1914 1807 1730 1471 1723
seeds and seedlings t N 325 326 308 312 297 282 286 279 298 301
Total input N t N 89961 81768 81786 81091 78940 80957 82213 82556 84665 84771
Livestock manure % 44.7 46 45.9 47.4 47.7 46.1 46.1 46.8 48.5 47.6
mineral fertilisers % 43.3 40.8 41.5 39.8 39.6 42 42.3 41.6 40.3 41
biological fixation % 9.3 10.1 9.9 9.7 9.8 9.2 9 9.1 9 9
deposition % 2.3 2.5 2.3 2.7 2.4 2.4 2.2 2.1 1.7 2
seeds and seedlings % 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4
Total input N % 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Livestock manure t N 42505 39672 37857 38556 38814 40323 38673 38667 37919 36559
mineral fertilisers t N 33412 34501 30264 29169 30383 29613 25039 28202 27486 27134
deposition t N 7582 7646 7358 7631 7355 7477 7386 7027 7242 6873
biological fixation t N 1778 1833 2096 2341 2550 2523 2863 3164 3050 3013
seeds and seedlings t N 283 285 282 277 295 293 295 290 274 258
Total input N t N 85603 83955 77862 77977 79398 80230 74256 77350 75989 73837
Livestock manure % 49.7 47.3 48.6 49.4 48.9 50.3 52.1 50 49.9 49.5
mineral fertilisers % 39 41.1 38.9 37.4 38.3 36.9 33.7 36.5 36.2 36.7
biological fixation % 8.9 9.1 9.5 9.8 9.3 9.3 9.9 9.1 9.5 9.3
deposition % 2.1 2.2 2.7 3 3.2 3.1 3.9 4.1 4 4.1
seeds and seedlings % 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.3
Total input N % 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
2012
Livestock manure t N 36036
mineral fertilisers t N 26300
deposition t N 7195
biological fixation t N 2904
seeds and seedlings t N 275
Total input N t N 72710
Livestock manure % 49.6
mineral fertilisers % 36.2
biological fixation % 9.9
deposition % 4
seeds and seedlings % 0.4
Total input N % 100
Figure KM22-2: Nitrogen output
Sources: 

Agricultural Institute of Slovenia, 2014

Show data
1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
cereals t N 6028 6762 8417 8170 7762 8579 8919 7557 7968 8103
vegetables, fruit, ornamental crops t N 778 829 875 821 916 850 902 831 973 731
dried pulses, root and industrial crops, other harvested crops and others t N 1596 1752 2414 2322 2376 2152 2396 2480 2035 1497
fodder from arable land t N 2760 3566 5815 6051 6223 6673 6709 5960 4674 3929
grassland consumption t N 17811 16712 32460 29761 28330 31402 30783 30940 25412 26073
Nitrogen output - Total t N 28973 29621 49981 47125 45607 49656 49709 47768 41062 40333
cereals % 20.8 22.8 16.8 17.3 17 17.3 17.9 15.8 19.4 20.1
vegetables, fruit, ornamental crops % 2.7 2.8 1.8 1.7 2 1.7 1.8 1.7 2.4 1.8
dried pulses, root and industrial crops, other harvested crops and others % 5.5 5.9 4.8 4.9 5.2 4.3 4.8 5.2 5 3.7
fodder from arable land % 9.5 12 11.6 12.8 13.6 13.4 13.5 12.5 11.4 9.7
grassland consumption % 61.5 56.4 64.9 63.2 62.1 63.2 61.9 64.8 61.9 64.6
Total % 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
cereals t N 9754 6432 9267 9154 7934 8502 9336 8542 9161 9727
vegetables, fruit, ornamental crops t N 949 767 1043 931 886 875 840 874 825 883
dried pulses, root and industrial crops, other harvested crops and others t N 1911 1523 1858 1942 1741 1403 1155 1206 1340 1339
fodder from arable land t N 5019 4190 5723 7039 5005 5440 5703 6007 5930 6096
grassland consumption t N 32958 20670 33252 35890 28877 32889 34195 33822 35652 31719
Nitrogen output - Total t N 50591 33582 51143 54956 44443 49109 51229 50451 52908 49764
cereals % 19.3 19.2 18.1 16.7 17.9 17.3 18.2 16.9 17.3 19.5
vegetables, fruit, ornamental crops % 1.9 2.3 2 1.7 2 1.8 1.6 1.7 1.6 1.8
dried pulses, root and industrial crops, other harvested crops and others % 3.8 4.5 3.6 3.5 3.9 2.9 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.7
fodder from arable land % 9.9 12.5 11.2 12.8 11.3 11.1 11.1 11.9 11.2 12.2
grassland consumption % 65.1 61.6 65 65.3 65 67 66.7 67 67.4 63.7
Total % 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
2012
cereals t N 9441
vegetables, fruit, ornamental crops t N 673
dried pulses, root and industrial crops, other harvested crops and others t N 1247
fodder from arable land t N 5379
grassland consumption t N 27622
Nitrogen output - Total t N 44362
cereals % 21.3
vegetables, fruit, ornamental crops % 1.5
dried pulses, root and industrial crops, other harvested crops and others % 2.8
fodder from arable land % 12.1
grassland consumption % 62.3
Total % 100
Figure KM22-3: The nitrogen balance in Slovenia
Sources: 

Agricultural Institute of Slovenia, 2011.

Show data
1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
Input N kg N/ha 162 148 152 154 154 164 167 166 166 166
Output N kg N/ha 52 53 93 89 88 100 101 95 80 79
Gross Nitrogen balance [kg N/ha] kg N/ha 110 95 60 65 65 64 67 70 86 88
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Input N kg N/ha 169 165 159 153 162 161 151 165 157 161
Output N kg N/ha 100 66 104 108 91 99 104 107 109 108
Gross Nitrogen balance [kg N/ha] kg N/ha 70 99 55 45 71 62 47 58 48 53
2012
Input N kg N/ha 152
Output N kg N/ha 92
Gross Nitrogen balance [kg N/ha] kg N/ha 59
Figure KM22-4: The nitrogen balance in the old Member States of the European Union (EU-15) and in Slovenia in 2000
Sources: 

Agricultural Institute of Slovenia, 2010; OECD, 2010.

Show data
France Italy Sweden Spain Portugal Austria Ireland United Kingdom Finland EU-15
2000 kg N/ha 25 37 38 39 42 43 44 45 51 55
Greece Denmark Slovenia Germany Luxembourg Belgium Netherlands
2000 kg N/ha 69 77 90.1 105 117 174.3 226
Figure KM22-5: Bilanca dušika po vodnih telesih podzemnih voda v letu 2009
Sources: 

Kmetijski inštitut Slovenije, 2011

Show data
4017 Vzhodne Slovenske gorice 3012 Dravska kotlina 1001 Savska kotlina in Ljubljansko Barje 1002 Savinjska kotlina 4016 Murska kotlina 3015 Zahodne Slovenske gorice 4018 Goričko 3014 Haloze in Dravinjske gorice 1009 Spodnji del Savinje do Sotle 3013 Vzhodne Alpe
Input N t N 3352 5220 7997 1376 6382 6372 3179 3407 6865 4443
Input N kg N/ha 242 247 248 225 188 186 167 180 181 177
Output N t N 1272 2051 3966 661 2827 3400 1712 2100 4383 2900
Output N kg N/ha 92 97 123 108 83 99 90 111 116 115
N balance t N 2080 3168 4031 715 3555 2972 1467 1306 2482 1543
N balance kg N/ha 150 150 125 117 105 87 77 69 66 61
1003 Krška kotlina 1008 Posavsko hribovje do osrednje Sotle 1006 Kamniško-Savinjske Alpe 1011 Dolenjski kras 1007 Cerkljansko, Škofjeloško in Polhograjsko hribovje 6021 Goriška 1004 Julijske Alpe v porečju Save 6020 Julijske Alpe v porečju Soče 5019 Obala in Kras z Brkini 1010 Kraška Ljubljanica
Input N t N 769 7138 2481 9327 2693 2404 639 728 1963 2184
Input N kg N/ha 150 156 154 151 150 107 114 111 97 103
Output N t N 485 5118 1849 7064 2098 2167 645 751 2061 2472
Output N kg N/ha 95 112 115 114 117 97 115 115 102 116
N balance t N 284 2020 633 2263 595 237 -6 -22 -99 -287
N balance kg N/ha 55 44 39 37 33 11 -1 -3 -5 -13
1005 Karavanke
Input N t N 292
Input N kg N/ha 87
Output N t N 384
Output N kg N/ha 115
N balance t N -92
N balance kg N/ha -27

Goals

- balanced consumption of nitrogen from mineral fertilizers and livestock manures, gradual increase in the scope of ecological production, and prevention of soil loading from point sources and non-point sources.
- fertilise plants in a way to make the best use of nutrients without being wasted into the groundwater and the atmosphere
- reduction and prevention of further pollution of waters by nitrates from agricultural production.


In Slovenia, the balance surplus (gross stock) of nitrogen in agriculture has shown a downward trend in the last twenty years. In 2012, the amount of
nitrogen per hectare of utilised agricultural area stood at 59 kg N/ha.

The balance of nitrogen in agriculture is the difference between the input and output of nitrogen from agricultural land. The sources of nitrogen input to
utilised agricultural area are mineral fertilisers, livestock manure, and other kinds of organic manures, biological nitrogen fixation, atmospheric
deposition and nitrogen from the seeds and planting material. The agricultural crops harvested from agricultural areas are nitrogen output. The surplus of
nitrogen input over output presents an environmental threat, because it accumulates on the ground, leaches into waters, or ends up in the air in a gaseous
state.

The overall input of nitrogen on utilised agricultural area declined by almost a fifth, from 89,961 tons in 1992 to 72,710 tons in 2012, which is the
lowest amount in the observed period. Furthermore, the average input of nitrogen per hectare of utilised agricultural area reduced, from 162 kg N/ha to 152
kg N/ha. The main source of nitrogen is livestock manures (50% in 2012) and mineral fertilisers (36% in 2012). The reduction of nitrogen input from mineral
fertilisers significantly contributed to the reduced input of nitrogen in Slovenia.

The output of nitrogen with crops varied, since it amounted to between 28,973 and 54,956 tons of N, or 52 and 109 kg of N/ha per year on average. Such
great differences depend on varying weather conditions, since in periods of drought; the output of nitrogen also decreases, mainly due to lower crop
yields. The main source of nitrogen output is grassland (62% in 2012); arable crops and green fodder contribute around 33%, while the contribution of
permanent plantations and vegetable crops is relatively small.

Spatial diversity in Slovenia is also shown in the balance of nitrogen. The analysis of areas with groundwater bodies which, due to the risks of pollution
from nitrates in agriculture, are most sensitive to excessive concentrations, showed amounts of more than 100 kg N/ha in the south-eastern part of
Slovenia, and below 50 kg N/ha in the central part of Slovenia, while the west and north-western parts show a barely positive balance of nitrogen, and in
some groundwater bodies, even a negative nitrogen balance.


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