KAZALCI OKOLJA

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The European Community has fulfilled its obligations from the first period of the Kyoto Protocol, as total GHG emissions in the first commitment period 2008–2012, with no sinks taken into account, were approximately 19% below the base year values. By imposing the maximum level of allowed sinks, Slovenia has exceeded the goal by about 3%.

In 2015, Slovenian GHG emissions slightly increased and were1.3% higher than in 2014. Therefore, Slovenia is on track to achieve the EU goal, as non-ETS GHG emissions in 2015 were about 13.4% below the allocated emissions for 2015.


This indicator shows the trends in greenhouse gas emissions in Slovenia, the main sources of emissions (by category and sector) and the comparison with other European Union countries (the EU-28). Emissions included in the emission trading system (EU ETS), as well as those not included, are presented. Emissions are expressed in Gg COequivalent.

Greenhouse gas emissions monitored within the emission inventory include carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O ), F-gasses (such as hydrofluorocarbons (HFC), perfluorocarbons (PFC) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6). Greenhouse gas emissions are calculated in accordance with the IPCC methodology, which enables international comparability of data. Emissions are being calculated for transport, energy, industrial processes and the use of products, fuels in industry, fuels in households and commercial use, agriculture and waste. Land use, land use change and forestry represent a special category.

 


Charts

Figure PS03-1: Change in GHG emissions, 2008-2012, Slovenia, EU-15 and EU countries (GHG totals do not include from Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF)
Sources: 

UNFCCC, The draft 'Annual European Union greenhouse gas inventory 1990-2011; Arhiv TGP, Agencija RS za okolje, 2015

Show data

average change in emissions in period 2008-2012

Spain

24.96

Portugal

19.64

Greece

12.34

Ireland

10.82

Austria

4.77

Slovenia

-2.82

Italy

-3.61

Finland

-4.25

Netherlands

-5.85

Luxembourg

-9.36

France

-10.11

EU-15

-11.38

Denmark

-14.75

Sweden

-14.99

Germany

-24.11

United Kingdom

-24.19

Poland

-29.48

Czech Republic

-30.00

Slovakia

-36.28

Hungary

-40.63

Bulgaria

-52.56

Romania

-54.33

Estonia

-54.91

Latvia

-55.80

Lithuania

-56.37

Figure PS03-2: Greenhouse gas emissions by source category in Slovenia, 1986-2015
Sources: 
Greenhouse gas database, Slovenian Environment Agency (2017)
Show data

total

- SF6

- PFC

- HFC

F-gases

N2O

CH4

CO2

1986

20372.27

9.77

233.19

0

242.96

923.79

2555.87

16649.65

1987

19812.49

9.77

267.86

0

277.63

927.73

2532.69

16074.44

1988

19487.01

9.77

215.27

0

225.04

887.32

2528.66

15846.00

1989

19362.60

10.94

217.41

0

228.34

845.90

2533.26

15755.10

1990

18594.28

9.83

207.59

0

217.42

831.28

2471.10

15074.48

1991

17292.34

9.64

129.40

0

139.05

774.07

2384.10

13995.12

1992

17389.65

9.67

128.18

0

137.85

826.05

2429.62

13996.14

1993

17587.87

10.54

128.25

0

138.79

802.74

2353.53

14292.80

1994

17983.07

10.84

128.18

0

139.01

859.90

2350.25

14633.91

1995

18720.54

12.13

128.14

35.36

175.64

921.76

2378.39

15244.75

1996

19392.49

12.88

127.67

33.59

174.14

974.16

2338.11

15906.09

1997

19743.85

13.25

128.19

39.48

180.92

998.59

2331.11

16233.22

1998

19478.68

12.77

128.08

35.26

176.11

984.05

2370.04

15948.49

1999

18853.11

15.36

128.29

33.86

177.52

978.67

2373.20

15323.73

2000

19092.52

15.01

129.75

46.78

191.54

1011.94

2458.65

15430.39

2001

19985.52

15.37

129.26

58.91

203.54

996.80

2421.59

16363.59

2002

20137.21

16.54

135.07

74.75

226.35

887.00

2515.37

16508.48

2003

19852.42

17.09

139.44

103.96

260.49

852.67

2468.88

16270.38

2004

20180.83

17.47

140.69

126.30

284.46

820.97

2444.53

16630.87

2005

20497.65

18.00

142.13

152.56

312.68

829.48

2425.93

16929.56

2006

20672.39

17.93

134.26

181.49

333.69

835.86

2378.02

17124.82

2007

20804.80

17.51

99.68

208.16

325.35

838.10

2379.46

17261.89

2008

21497.88

19.37

14.74

228.67

262.78

791.78

2237.91

18205.41

2009

19573.10

17.16

5.24

245.53

267.93

787.47

2197.52

16320.18

2010

19603.02

17.94

9.64

259.83

287.41

774.44

2180.35

16360.82

2011

19611.04

18.18

20.16

272.55

310.89

777.94

2175.15

16347.05

2012

19040.28

15.93

18.11

294.26

328.30

780.17

2123.12

15808.69

2013

18340.85

15.49

15.31

312.44

343.24

750.62

2079.32

15167.66

2014

16610.33

15.00

15.22

328.86

359.08

757.54

1980.97

13512.74

2015

16831.16

14.74

15.74

346.21

376.70

818.98

2037.48

13598.01

Figure PS03-3: Annual GHG emissions, by sector, Slovenia, 1986-2015
Sources: 
Greenhouse gas database, Slovenian Environment Agency (2017)
Show data

total

other

fugitive emissions from fuels

other sectors

waste

agriculture

fuels in manufacturing industries and construction

industrial processes

energy industries

transport

total

other

fugitive emissions from fuels

other sectors

waste

agriculture

fuels in manufacturing industries and construction

industrial processes

energy industries

transport

1986

100

0.20

2.90

11.90

2.91

9.84

21.89

6.83

33.58

9.96

20372.27

41.44

590.27

2423.90

593.02

2004.46

4458.49

1391.24

6840.99

2028.46

1987

100

0.16

2.84

12.32

3.07

10.17

19.94

7.09

32.70

11.70

19812.49

32.02

563.61

2440.80

608.78

2014.49

3950.43

1404.72

6479.28

2318.37

1988

100

0.16

2.93

10.38

3.20

10.14

19.09

7.57

33.70

12.82

19487.01

32.02

571.79

2023.38

623.87

1976.56

3720.08

1474.68

6566.93

2497.69

1989

100

0.17

2.95

10.71

3.30

10.00

18.01

7.33

34.47

13.06

19362.60

32.02

571.13

2073.46

639.06

1937.03

3487.96

1419.52

6673.70

2528.73

1990

100

0.17

2.74

9.96

3.47

10.34

16.94

7.40

34.28

14.70

18594.28

32.02

509.44

1851.08

644.90

1922.89

3149.88

1375.64

6374.89

2733.53

1991

100

3.99

2.74

12.58

3.75

10.45

17.91

6.19

31.41

14.92

17292.34

6.91

474.19

2175.76

648.51

1807.84

3097.54

1069.77

5431.41

2580.42

1992

100

7.94

3.00

11.10

3.71

11.05

15.50

6.07

34.30

15.27

17389.65

1.38

520.95

1930.30

645.87

1920.70

2695.16

1055.14

5964.57

2655.58

1993

100

7.85

2.72

13.74

3.78

10.27

14.31

4.85

32.72

17.62

17587.87

1.38

477.76

2415.71

664.18

1805.53

2517.59

852.82

5754.25

3098.64

1994

100

7.68

2.55

12.93

3.74

10.12

14.95

5.73

30.79

19.18

17983.07

1.38

458.73

2325.87

672.29

1820.13

2688.83

1030.04

5536.86

3448.93

1995

100

7.38

2.59

13.24

3.62

9.77

14.06

5.70

30.58

20.42

18720.54

1.38

485.38

2477.86

678.30

1828.40

2633.04

1067.51

5725.08

3823.59

1996

100

7.12

2.41

16.03

3.55

9.14

12.88

5.51

27.47

23.00

19392.49

1.38

467.55

3108.52

688.33

1772.50

2498.31

1069.09

5327.36

4459.45

1997

100

7.00

2.53

16.11

3.57

8.79

11.33

5.62

29.12

22.93

19743.85

1.38

500.35

3180.25

704.39

1736.29

2236.46

1108.75

5749.27

4526.71

1998

100

1.39

2.55

16.48

3.72

9.10

11.79

5.57

30.74

20.03

19478.68

2.70

497.05

3210.61

723.70

1773.35

2295.66

1085.93

5988.41

3901.28

1999

100

1.53

2.52

18.18

3.97

9.48

12.23

5.88

28.05

19.67

18853.11

2.89

475.92

3427.33

748.27

1787.31

2305.75

1107.69

5289.14

3708.81

2000

100

1.61

2.46

16.24

4.02

9.81

11.92

6.02

29.30

20.21

19092.52

3.08

470.50

3099.72

767.72

1873.69

2275.68

1149.98

5594.44

3857.72

2001

100

1.63

2.33

15.87

3.92

9.26

11.09

6.01

31.58

19.91

19985.52

3.27

464.92

3171.00

784.39

1851.17

2217.11

1201.78

6311.78

3980.11

2002

100

1.62

2.52

15.03

3.97

9.49

11.17

6.01

32.60

19.19

20137.21

3.27

508.13

3026.17

800.00

1911.72

2249.30

1209.25

6564.32

3865.05

2003

100

0.02

2.70

14.84

4.06

9.15

10.91

6.48

31.68

20.17

19852.42

3.27

536.44

2946.34

805.54

1815.94

2165.87

1285.64

6289.38

4004.02

2004

100

1.70

2.66

14.27

4.00

8.69

11.33

6.63

31.82

20.58

20180.83

3.42

536.63

2880.19

807.35

1753.99

2286.41

1337.27

6421.87

4153.71

2005

100

1.62

2.56

12.82

3.84

8.66

12.12

6.91

31.46

21.61

20497.65

3.33

524.43

2628.71

788.06

1774.29

2485.13

1416.76

6448.20

4428.75

2006

100

1.61

2.59

11.64

3.62

8.56

12.52

7.10

31.47

22.48

20672.39

3.33

535.70

2406.90

748.52

1768.61

2588.37

1468.46

6504.66

4647.85

2007

100

1.68

2.61

9.41

3.37

8.77

11.27

7.09

32.33

25.13

20804.80

3.48

543.03

1958.55

700.72

1823.95

2345.08

1475.21

6725.75

5229.03

2008

100

1.65

2.44

10.82

2.78

8.09

10.78

6.20

30.23

28.64

21497.88

3.56

525.20

2325.26

597.79

1739.62

2317.59

1332.35

6498.68

6157.83

2009

100

1.71

2.64

11.53

2.81

8.96

10.00

5.10

31.73

27.21

19573.10

3.34

517.46

2256.19

550.75

1753.24

1956.36

999.20

6210.67

5325.89

2010

100

1.47

2.65

11.68

2.80

8.77

9.77

5.10

32.34

26.86

19603.02

2.89

519.92

2289.05

549.04

1720.16

1916.08

1000.67

6339.70

5265.51

2011

100

0.02

2.70

10.33

2.85

8.65

8.76

5.20

32.43

29.06

19611.04

3.37

529.52

2026.64

559.21

1696.47

1718.28

1018.81

6359.33

5699.41

2012

100

1.77

2.71

9.37

2.82

8.82

8.67

5.49

31.79

30.32

19040.28

3.38

515.79

1783.38

537.50

1679.31

1650.11

1044.62

6052.79

5773.40

2013

100

1.64

2.49

9.28

2.91

9.06

8.96

6.03

31.48

29.77

18340.85

3.02

457.18

1701.85

533.37

1662.50

1643.86

1105.49

5773.73

5459.85

2014

100

2.26

2.15

8.50

3.03

10.28

9.93

6.88

26.78

32.42

16610.33

3.75

357.60

1412.67

502.97

1707.55

1649.90

1142.99

4447.90

5385.00

2015

100

2.20

2.19

8.97

3.09

10.36

9.45

6.96

27.10

31.84

16831.16

3.70

369.02

1510.25

520.81

1743.51

1591.12

1172.26

4561.54

5358.94

Figure PS03-4: GHG emissions, EU ETS non-ETS, 2005-2015
Sources: 
GHG Archive, Slovenian environment agency (2017)
; Reports on discharge 2013-2015, REK (2016)
Show data

EU ETS emissions

non EU ETS emissions

2005

8720.55

11777.10

2006

8842.18

11830.21

2007

9048.63

11756.16

2008

8860.11

12637.77

2009

8067.02

11506.08

2010

8129.86

11473.16

2011

7994.55

11616.49

2012

7610.59

11429.69

2013

7386.31

10954.54

2014

6115.29

10495.05

2015

6109.59

10721.57

Figure PS03-5: Non-ETS GHG emissions, by sector, Slovenia
Sources: 
GHG Archive, Slovenian environment agency (2017)
; Reports on discharge 2013-2015, REK (2016)
Show data

allocated emissions

total

other

other sectors

waste

agriculture

fuels in manufacturing industries and construction

industrial processes

energy industries

transport

2013

12323.92

10954.54

380.87

1701.85

533.37

1662.50

606.41

454.56

155.13

5459.85

2014

12353.72

10495.05

311.40

1412.67

502.97

1707.55

596.55

461.19

117.72

5385.00

2015

2016

2017

2018

2019

2020


Goals

In 1992, the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was adopted by countries worldwide. Discussions within this framework addressed limiting the increase in global temperature and the mitigation of climate change. The period 2008–2012 was set as the first commitment period. As a signatory of the Kyoto Protocol, Slovenia was obliged to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 8% in the period 2008–2012 compared to the base year of 1986.

Although there is no global agreement that would limit emissions by 2020, the EU set a goal of a 20% cut in GHG emissions by 2020 compared to 1990. In sectors included in the ETS, it will be achieved by gradually reducing the number of emission allowances available via auctioning. In sectors not included in the ETS, an individual target was set for each country taking into account its gross domestic product (GDP). Thus, the richest countries will be obliged to cut their emissions by up to 20% relative to 2005, while some of the poorest countries will be allowed to increase their emissions. For each year in the period 2013–2020, an emission ceiling was imposed on each Member State. These individual targets were defined by Decision 406/2009 and adjusted by Decision 634/2013. The final targets are shown in figure and table PS3-1. In accordance with this Decision, Slovenia may increase its emissions from sectors outside the ETS by 4% compared to 2005, the base year for the EU target.

 

Figure PS3-6: GHG emissions targets by 2020

COUNTRY

Kyoto 2008–2012 targets

2020 targets

Austria

-13%

- 16%

Belgium

-7.50%

-15%

Bulgaria

-8%

20%

Croatia

-5%

-16%

Czech Republic

-8%

9%

Cyprus

 -

-5%

Denmark

-21%

-20%

Estonia

-8%

11%

Finland

0%

-16%

France

0%

-14%

Germany

-21%

-14%

Greece

25%

-4%

Hungary

-6%

10%

Iceland

-10%

 -

Ireland

13%

-20%

Italy

-6.50%

-13%

Latvia

-8%

17%

Lichtenstein

-8%

 -

Lithuania

-8%

15%

Luxembourg

-28%

-20%

Malta

 -

5%

Netherlands

-6%

-16%

Norway

1%

 -

Poland

-6%

14%

Portugal

27%

1%

Romania

-8%

19%

Slovakia

-8%

13%

Slovenia

-8%

4%

Spain

15%

-10%

Sweden

4%

-17%

Turkey

 -

 -

United Kingdom

-12.50 %

-16%

EU-15 (Member States before 2004)

-8%

 -

EU-28

-

-10%

 

Source: Decision No 406/2009/EC on the effort of Member States to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions to meet the Community's greenhouse gas emission reduction commitments up to 2020 and the Kyoto Protocol


All EU countries fulfilled their commitments from the first Kyoto Protocol period. Old Member States (EU-15) had a common 2008–2012 period target: to reduce greenhouse emissions by 8% compared to the base year. Their target was exceeded by almost 4%. Within this common target, each EU-15 Member State had its individual target set in accordance with its relative wealth. Some of them had to reduce their emissions considerably, while others were allowed to increase them. In order to achieve their targets, four countries had to buy additional emission allowances (Austria, Denmark, Luxembourg and Spain). On the other hand, all new Member States achieved their Kyoto targets without buying additional allowances, with the Baltic states being the most successful in exceeding their targets. Overall, the Member States (EU-28) reduced their emissions by 19% compared to the base year, with sinks and international credits not being taken into account. For the achievement of its Kyoto target, Slovenia exceeded its target (-8%) by 3% by using the maximum level of allowed carbon sinks.

Total greenhouse gas emissions in Slovenia amounted to the equivalent of 16,831 Gg (gigagram = 1000 tonnes or 1 kilotonne of CO2) in 2015, which was 17.4% below the value in the base year of 1986 but 1.3% above the 2014 value. The greatest contributors to increased emissions were the energy sector (2.6%) and the fuel consumption sector in households and the commercial sector (6.9%). In industry and agriculture, emissions were slightly lower than in 2014.

In Slovenia, CO2 has the largest share (80.0% in 2015) of total GHG emissions. It is mostly generated in fuel combustion and industrial processes. It’s followed by methane (12.1%), originating from waste and agriculture, and nitrous oxide (4.9%), which is mostly generated in agriculture as well. Emissions of N2O from transport are notable as well. Although emissions of F-gases, such as hydrofluorocarbons (HFC), perfluorocarbons (PFC) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6), are very low, their contribution to global warming is still significant (2.3%) due to their strong greenhouse effect.

Covering more than 58% of Slovenia's land area in 2015, forests are an important factor in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The calculated sinks due to land use change and forestry are considerable; in 2015, they amounted to -5,629 kt of CO2 equivalent. Despite the importance of forests as CO2 sinks, the Member States will not be allowed to use them in meeting their emission reduction targets by 2020.

For meeting the EU 2020 targets, the division of emissions included in the ETS and those not included in the ETS is important. Emissions within ETS, which include all larger electricity and heat producers and all energy-demanding industries, will be reduced in the future due to the reduction of available emission allowances available via auctions. In 2015, emissions from these sources in Slovenia were reduced by 0.1% compared to the preceding year.

Emissions that are not included in the ETS are particularly important for Slovenia because they can thus be influenced by countries through measures and policies in respected fields. These emissions may not exceed the quantities allocated to individual countries by Decisions 406/2009 and 634/2013. For Slovenia, the 2015 ceiling was 12,384 Gg of CO2 equivalent. Emissions in Slovenia reached 10,722 Gg of CO2 equivalent, which was 13.4% below the emission ceiling for that year.

Among sectors outside the ETS, the most important is transport, which contributed 50% of all emissions in 2015. Within the transport sector, most emissions are contributed by road transport (99.1% in 2015). Emissions from transport were increasing steeply up to 2008, when they were 39% higher than in 2005. In 2009, they decreased due to the onset of the economic crisis and increased again in 2011 and 2012. In the period 2013–2015 they decreased slightly again, which can be contributed to higher environmental awareness and sustainable mobility. Nevertheless, emissions in 2015 were still 21.0% higher than in 2005.

The next important source is agriculture, which contributed 16.3% of emissions. In 2015, emissions from agriculture increased by 2.1% compared to the preceding year, although they were still 1.7% below the 2005 levels. The main reason for reduced emissions was the intensification of livestock farming, resulting in a reduced number of livestock and improved manure management in pig farming.

With a share of 14.1%, the use of fuel in households and the commercial-institutional sector are the third most important source of GHG emissions outside the ETS. In 2015, these emissions were 6.9% higher than in the preceding year but were still 42.5% below the 2005 level. Such a reduction was largely a result of mild winters in recent years as well as the increased use of wood for heating, as CO2 from biomass is not taken into account.

Other sources that contribute to emissions outside the ETS are as follows: other use of fuels in industry (9.3%), waste management (4.9%), other process-related emissions (1.2%) and other sources (fugitive emissions, the remainder of the energy sector, etc. [3.0%]).

The first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol was 2008–2012. The second commitment period began in 2013 and will end in 2020. Currently, the Kyoto Protocol covers less than a third of greenhouse gas emissions. Emission growth is the most rapid in the fastest-growing economies of developing countries. Without their participation, global warming will be impossible to halt.

In December 2015, 195 countries gathered at the climate conference in Paris. They adopted a universal, legally binding agreement to limit global warming. The agreement foresees a transition to a low-carbon society at the global level, extreme reduction in fossil fuel consumption and an increase in average global temperature by no more than 2oC compared to pre-industrial values. The agreement entered into force on 4 November 2016 and will limit emissions after 2020.

The policy of change pursued by the European Union is ambitious and involves all EU Member States. The adopted EU targets by 2020 are as follows:

  • to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 20%;
  • to increase the use of renewable energy sources in final energy consumption by 20%;
  • to achieve a 10% share of biofuels in the total amount of fuels used for transport,
  • to increase energy efficiency by 20%.

To meet the commitments from the Kyoto Protocol and to achieve a 20% cut in GHG emissions, Slovenia introduced numerous measures. Most measures are described in the Operational programme to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the period 2013–2020. In addition, the reduction of GHG emissions is also supported by the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency for the period 2008–2016 (the Government of the Republic of Slovenia, 2008) and the National Action Plan for Renewable Energy sources for the period 2010–2020 (the Government of the Republic of Slovenia, 2010). At the EU level, there is also the Roadmap for moving to a competitive low-carbon economy in 2050 (European Commission, 2011).

 

 


Source data base
Greenhouse gas database, Slovenian Environment Agency
Date of data source summarization
01.04.2017
Source data base
GHG Archive, Slovenian environment agency
Date of data source summarization
15.04.2017
Source data base
Reports on discharge 2013-2015, REK
Date of data source summarization
27.10.2016