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After the entry of Slovenia into the EU, road freight transport has increased sharply; namely, the volume of tkm of Slovenian transport operators in the period 2004-2010 increased by 77 %. Particularly alarming is also the growth of road freight transit through Slovenia.


The indicator shows the modal split in freight transport in the Republic of Slovenia and in the group of selected European countries. The data for Slovenia is indicated by development indexes of freight transport in road, rail, port and air transport for the period 1990-2007; the data for other European countries is indicated by shares of tkm (tonne-kilometres) by road, rail and inland waterways in the period 1992–2004.


Charts

Figure PR02-1: Freight transport in Slovenia in the period 1990-2010 (road transport – tonne-kilometres of Slovenian transport operators at home and abroad, rail transport – net tonne-kilometres in the Slovenian network, port traffic – tonnes of imported and shipped cargo in ports, airport traffic – tonnes of imported and shipped cargo in airports)
Sources: 

Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia: Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Slovenia 1996-2010 and SI-STAT Data portal, 2011.

Show data
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Road goods transport index (1990=100) 100 88.4 94.9 94 104.6 116.3 121.7 123.1 129.4 133
Railway goods transport index (1990=100) 100 77.1 61.1 53.7 54.6 68.4 55.7 62.3 62.6 61.2
Maritime transport of goods index (1990=100) 100 93.9 104.2 94.7 98.7 96.8 102.9 103.2 97 94.4
Air transport of goods index (1990=100) 100 95.2 107.4 234.7 217 220.9 215.7 213.4 211.1 236.3
Road goods transport tkm (mio) 4887 4322 4639 4596 5114 5683 5948 6015 6324 6500
Railway goods transport net tkm 4209 3246 2573 2262 2298 2881 2343 2623 2635 2576
Maritime transport of goods received and shipped goods (1000 t) 3226 3028 3363 3056 3183 3122 3318 3329 3130 3045
Air transport of goods prepeljano blago (t) 1755 1670 1885 4119 3808 3877 3785 3745 3705 4147
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Road goods transport index (1990=100) 136.2 144 135.2 144.1 184.3 225.7 247.8 281 332.7 302.1
Railway goods transport index (1990=100) 61.8 61.9 67.5 71.7 74.8 77.1 80.1 85.6 83.6 66.9
Maritime transport of goods index (1990=100) 110 107.6 100 97.2 135 180.3 175.4 159.9 177.7 203.4
Air transport of goods index (1990=100) 259.6 237.8 263.2 219.6 201.1 172.9 238.9 257 132.3 105.6
Road goods transport tkm (mio) 6654 7035 6609 7040 9007 11032 12112 13734 16261 14762
Railway goods transport net tkm 2600 2605 2839 3018 3149 3245 3373 3603 3520 2817
Maritime transport of goods received and shipped goods (1000 t) 3547 3471 3226 3136 4354 5815 5658 5158 5733 6561
Air transport of goods prepeljano blago (t) 4556 4173 4620 3854 3530 3035 4193 4510 2321 1854
2010 2011
Road goods transport index (1990=100) 326 336.4
Railway goods transport index (1990=100) 81.3 89.1
Maritime transport of goods index (1990=100) 190 212.6
Air transport of goods index (1990=100) 105.5 110.4
Road goods transport tkm (mio) 15931 16439
Railway goods transport net tkm 3421 3752
Maritime transport of goods received and shipped goods (1000 t) 6131 6858
Air transport of goods prepeljano blago (t) 1851 1937
Figure PR02-2: Share of freight transport in the EU-27 countries in the period 2000-2009(the data is based on tonne-kilometres)
Sources: 

EUROSTAT, Modal split of freight transport, 2011

Show data
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
road transport % 73 74 75 75 76 76 76 76 76 77
rail transport % 20 19 19 19 18 18 18 18 18 17
inland waterway transport % 6.6 6.5 6.3 5.8 5.9 6 6 6 6 6
2010
road transport % 76.4
rail transport % 17.1
inland waterway transport % 6.5
Figure PR02-3: Modal shares in freight transport (% of tonne-kilometres) in 2009 in different European regions
Sources: 

EUROSTAT, Modal split of freight transport, 2011

Show data
Latvia Estonia Romania Austria Lithuania Sweden The Netherlands Germany Bulgaria Belgium
road transport % 38.1 45.8 49.2 56.3 59.1 60.7 62.1 64.9 68.1 69.5
rail transport % 61.9 54.2 23.5 39 40.9 39.3 4.9 22.2 10.7 12.5
inland waterway transport % x x 27.2 4.7 0 x 33 12.9 21.2 18
Croatia Slovakia Finland Hungary EU-28 Czech Republic Poland France Slovenia Denmark
road transport % 71.2 74.8 75 75.1 76 79 80.6 82.2 82.3 87
rail transport % 21.2 22 24.8 19.6 19 21 19.4 13.5 17.7 13
inland waterway transport % 7.6 3.2 0.2 5.3 5 x 0.1 4.3 x x
United Kingdom Italy Luxembourg Portugal Spain Greece Ireland Cyprus Malta
road transport % 88.7 90.4 93.5 93.9 95.8 98 99.2 100 100
rail transport % 11.2 9.6 2.7 6.1 4.2 2 0.8 x x
inland waterway transport % 0.1 0.1 3.9 x x x x x x
Figure PR02-4: Road freight transport in selected EU-27 countries by quarter for the period 2006-2010
Sources: 

EUROSTAT, Summary of quarterly road freight transport by type of operation and type of transport, 2011

Show data
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
Road mil tkm 1288.66 1302.579 1351.678 1414.204 1469.941 1518.706 1556.267 1605.898 1625.437 1742.101
Rail mil tkm 386.144068 392.146 409.537 392.506525 383.625015003 403.675754642 385.974302252 383.777192553 391.888268755 416.83337026
Sea mil tkm 1146 1160 1193 1232 1268 1314 1334 1355 1378 1427
Inland Waterway mil tkm 122.085208 119.756492 127.848127 131.011354551 128.726899 133.8613496 132.5287596 132.504278 123.5149852 136.734451
Air mil tkm 2 2.06 2.18 2.25 2.3 2.45 2.46 2.4 2.42 2.51
Oil Pipeline mil tkm 114.9073 119.3301 118.179 125.388 124.228 126.6787 133.0403 128.4456 130.3528 131.7443606
Total mil tkm 3059.796576 3095.871592 3202.422127 3297.35987955 3376.820914 3499.37180424 3544.27036185 3608.02507055 3651.61305395 3856.92318186
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Road mil tkm 1794.006 1847.572 1914.456 1880.501 1690.331 1755.625
Rail mil tkm 413.18918045 434.859920253 448.426 439.563 361.031 389.871
Sea mil tkm 1461 1505 1532 1498 1336 1414.824
Inland Waterway mil tkm 138.6623744 138.4605691 144.928590399 145.2586144 129.827 147.444
Air mil tkm 2.58 2.66 2.75 2.7 2.48 2.548696
Oil Pipeline mil tkm 136.4435038 135.5112498 130.285176 125.1525174 119.2532 120.5593
Total mil tkm 3945.88105865 4064.06373915 4172.8457664 4091.1751318 3638.9222 3830.871996

Goals

- Rail transport should take over the majority share of freight transport in international and transit road transport, and a combination of road-rail and road-maritime freight transport, which will enable a more even distribution of freight among different transport modes (RePPRS)
- Provision of reliable, safe, competitive and environmentally-friendly freight transport (Operational Programme of Environmental and Transport Infrastructure Development for the Period 2007–2013)


The starting point for modal shares of freight transport from the environmental point of view are the differences in the environmental efficiency of transport modes (use of resources, greenhouse gas emissions, noise and other pollutant emissions, use of land, accidents, etc.). The differences provide an opportunity to influence the environmental impact of freight transport by transport policies that can change the ratios of use of individual transport modes.

Due to insufficient data in Slovenia, it is not easy to assess the modal shares in freight transport by individual transport modes; therefore, different estimates can be found in domestic and foreign literature. In 2005, the Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia updated the data for the period 1992-2004, which should be more reliable now.

However, the data still has a fundamental methodological deficiency of not considering the tkm of foreign transport operators on Slovenian roads and the tkm that Slovenian transport operators perform abroad. Although the shares of road freight transport are according to the previous assessments far more unfavourable, they are still slightly lower than the average of the EU-15 and EU-25 (EEA, 2006). Despite the data problems it is obvious that road freight transport has been increasing the most and taking over a larger share of freight in Slovenia, especially after its entry into the EU. The transport of domestic operators, indicated by tkm, increased in the period 2004–2007 by 52 % (on average by 15 % annually). Rail freight transport increased in the same period by 14 % (on average by 5 % annually). The growth of both transport modes was moderate before the entry of Slovenia into the EU; namely, since 1993 road transport increased on average by 6 %, and rail transport by 3 % annually (Šegan, 2005). Also alarming is the data for road freight transit through Slovenia, which is unfortunately not included in statistical monitoring. In the period 2000-2004 it increased on average by 10 % annually, while after the entry of Slovenia into the EU at an even faster rate – the number of movements of cargo vehicles across the border with Hungary increased by 112 % in the period 2004-2007 (The Slovenian Police, 2009). An assessment of freight transport by trucks, prepared annually by the Slovenian Roads Agency, confirms the strong increase in road freight transport in Slovenia in the last seven years. It is estimated that the transport by light, medium and heavy trucks and trailer vehicles on Slovenian state roads increased by 73 % in the period 2001-2007. The increase in transport by light and medium trucks was smaller in this period – around 37 %; transport by heavy trucks and trailer vehicles was much higher – around 133 % (Slovenian Roads Agency, 2009).

The share of air and maritime freight transport in the territory of the Republic of Slovenia is not large; however, maritime transport at the port of Koper, as the most important freight terminal in the country, is an important source and destination of inland freight routes. The volume of maritime transport has been increasing throughout the years; in the period 1990-2007 on average by a solid 6 % annually. The volume of air freight transport, conducted primarily through Ljubljana Airport, has been changing for some time. The last strong increase was indicated after the entry of Slovenia into the EU, when it increased on average by 49 % annually in the period 2004-2007. The addition of a new business partner for express mail transport (UPS) in 2006 at Jože Pučnik Ljubljana airport contributed a lot to this increase; namely, UPS uses the airport as a transport logistic centre for the further dispatching of consignments to other parts of South-Eastern Europe. Only in the first year of business of UPS in Slovenia, the freight air transport increased in total by 130 %.

Considering the state of the transport policy and the (non)competitiveness of railways in Slovenia, we can expect a continuation of unfavourable development by an increase in the volume and share of road freight transport and decrease in the share of railways. In the free market of transport services, which does not include all costs caused by individual transport modes, road freight transport is more competitive, since, as a rule, it is faster, cheaper, more reliable and more adjustable than other transport modes. Such trends are also accelerated by production and trade processes; for instance, delivery on time, which demands an adjustable transport mode. At the same time, production and trade with cargo of higher value has been increasing, which is dominated by road transport; on the other hand, the production and trade of bulk cargo, which was traditionally transported by rail, has been decreasing. An additional impulse for the road freight transport in Slovenia was the entry into the EU, which eliminated administrative barriers at borders. Moreover, the harmonisation of national railway systems, which will enable more fluid rail transport across borders, is still being conducted.

The road transport mode is prevailing also in terms of EU freight transport. Its share has been increasing year on year, and in 2004 it amounted to 77 %. On the other hand, more sustainable transport modes (rail and river transport) have been decreasing.


Data for Slovenia

Objectives summarised by: Resolution on Transport Policy of the Republic of Slovenia (RePPRS), OG RS, no. 58/2006 and Operational Programme of Environmental and Transport Infrastructure Development for the Period 2007–2013.
Source database or source: Statistical Yearbooks of the Republic of Slovenia 1996–2008
Data administrator: Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia (SORS)
Date of acquisition for this indicator: 23 June 2009
Methodology and frequency of data collection for the indicator: The data on road freight transport (public and private) is collected by the SORS and published in the regular annual serial publication “Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Slovenia”. Since 2001, the data has been based on the regular reports of business entities (legal and natural persons), who own, hire or manage registered cargo motor vehicles with at least two tonnes of load capacity. The selection of rapporteurs is based on a quarterly sample, the basis of which is the Register of Motor Vehicles administered by the Ministry of the Interior. The data of the Ministry of the Interior is compared with the data of the Business Register of Slovenia. Older data (the period 1992-2000) is assessed on the basis of previous research studies of this transport mode, pilot projects conducted in 1999 and 2000, ongoing research studies of road freight transport, data on the border crossings of cargo vehicles, results of traffic counting and the data on business entities dealing with road freight transport.
Road freight transport includes all transport performed by Slovenian vehicles in Slovenia and abroad. However, the data does not indicate the share of routes performed in the domestic network by domestic transport operators with a freight destination or origin abroad. The data on road transport of foreign vehicles in the territory of the Republic of Slovenia is also not available.
Data on rail freight transport is provided to the SORS by Slovenske železnice (Slovenian Railways). The data includes all transport in the territory of the Republic of Slovenia. The data on total port transport in Slovenia refers to the ports of Koper, Izola and Piran; the data on the total freight transport at Slovenian airports refers to the Ljubljana, Maribor and Portorož airports (considering all business entities dealing with the indicated activities). The data on air transport and sea shipping includes all transport (also abroad) performed by the Slovenian transport operators Adria Airways and Splošna plovba.
Data processing methodology: The modal shares of freight transport are expressed by the indicator of freight transport demand – tkm. A tonne kilometre (tkm) is a measuring unit of freight transport, representing the movement of one tonne per one kilometre. In rail freight transport we distinguish between a gross tonne and net tonne kilometre. A gross tonne kilometre is the sum of multiplications of the entire freight weight (freight and wagon weight without the propelling vehicle) and distances, on which this weight did not change during transport. Net tonne kilometre is the sum of multiplications of the weight of transported freight and actual distances, on which the freight was transported (SORS, 2004). The volume of freight transport is expressed by the sum of all performed tonne kilometres in the considered area and in the determined time period; the structure is expressed by the share of tkm (modal split) by individual transport modes (road, rail, maritime, air).
Information concerning data quality:
- Advantages and disadvantages (at data level): The available data does not enable a review of the modal shares of tkm, performed by individual years in the territory of the Republic of Slovenia – the data on rail transport is based on the transport in the territory of the Republic of Slovenia; the data for road transport is based on all (domestic and foreign) transport of domestic transport operators. Transport performed by foreign transport operators in the territory of the Republic of Slovenia is not included. The data on tkm for air and maritime transport also does not enable a limitation to the territory of the Republic of Slovenia; therefore, the data on the freight volume at airports and ports is indicated. Furthermore, the older data (1992-2000) on road freight transport is only estimated and not measured.
- Relevance, accuracy, robustness, uncertainty: Due to several disadvantageses, the data is fairly inaccurate and unreliable, and more indicative in nature.
Reliability of the indicator (archive data): The data refers to a longer time period.
Uncertainty of the indicator (scenarios/projections): Projections have not been prepared.
- Overall assessment (1 = no major comments, 3 = data to be considered with reservation): 2 Projections have not been prepared.
Relevance: 2 (Vehicle-kilometre would be a better unit of measurement, since it is more directly linked to the environmental impact of transport movements) Projections have not been prepared.
Accuracy: 3 (the non-consideration of tkm of foreign transport operators on Slovenian roads and consideration of tkm that Slovenian transport operators perform abroad; the data on road freight transport for the period 1992-2000 is only estimated) Projections have not been prepared.
Completeness over time: 2 (the data on road freight transport until 2000 is estimated, later data was measured) Projections have not been prepared.
Completeness over space: 1

Data for other countries:

Source database or source: TERM 2006 13b – Modal split in freight transport, Indicator Fact Sheet
Data administrator: European Environment Agency (EEA)
Date of acquisition for this indicator: 23 June 2009
Methodology and frequency of data collection for the indicator: The EEA has been obtaining the data on the modal split in freight transport from the common questionnaire, prepared by Eurostat, the European Conference of Transport Ministers (ECMT) and the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE).
Data processing methodology: The missing values were obtained by a method of linear extrapolation and by considering the situation in neighbouring countries with a similar level of development in freight transport.
Geographical coverage: The EEA-30 includes the group of 30 EEA Member States for which sufficient data was available. That group is composed of the EU-15 Member States (Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Spain, France, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Austria, Portugal, Finland, Sweden and the United Kingdom), 10 new EU-10 Member States (Cyprus, Malta, Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Hungary), plus Romania, Bulgaria, Turkey, Iceland and Norway.
Information concerning data quality:
- Advantages and disadvantages (at data level): Data for maritime transport is insufficient.
- Relevance, accuracy, robustness, uncertainty: Data is quite reliable, except data for sea transport.
Reliability of the indicator (archive data): The data refers to a longer time period.
Uncertainty of the indicator (scenarios/projections): Projections have not been prepared.
- Overall assessment (1 = no major comments, 3 = data to be considered with reservation): 2
Relevance: 2 (Vehicle-kilometre would be a better unit of measurement, since it is more directly linked to the environmental impact of transport movements)
Accuracy: 2 (tkm figures are estimated rather than measured, but are rather consistent between sources, except for sea shipping)
Completeness over time: 2 (especially new Member States and candidate countries occasionally have breaks in time series)
Completeness over space: 2 (differences exist in methodology between individual countries regarding what data is included)

Other sources and literature:
- Slovenian Roads Agency, 2009: Performed kilometres in the period 1997–2007 on state roads in the Republic of Slovenia. Ljubljana, Slovenian Roads Agency (23 June 2009).
- EEA, 2006: TERM 2006 13b – Modal split in freight transport. Indicator Fact Sheet. European Environment Agency
- The Slovenian Police, 2009: The number of cargo vehicles on the border between the Republic of Slovenia and Republic of Hungary (from 2004 to 2007). Ljubljana, The Slovenian Police.
- Resolution on Transport Policy of the Republic of Slovenia. OG RS, no. 58/2006.
- SORS, 2004: Glossary for transport statistics (UNECE, ECMT, Eurostat). Ljubljana, Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia (23 June 2009).
- Šegan, V., 2005. Transport of goods on roads and railways in 2004. Ljubljana, Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia (23 June 2009).


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