KAZALCI OKOLJA

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Farm management practices have a direct impact on various processes of soil degradation, such as erosion, reduced organic matter content in soil, soil compaction, and different types of pollution. These processes are reduced by land cover with crops and harvest residues, and depend mostly on the sowing structure. In the 1992-2005 period, land cover in Slovenia was relatively constant (from 62.7 % do to 70.0 %), which is below the EU average in 2000. The share of maize exceeds 40 %, and the share of legume crops is below 10 %. After 2000, a slight increase in land cover and in the share of legume crops has been observed in the sowing structure. Combined storage facilities for storing livestock manure and slurry prevail among storage facilities for organic fertilizers, enabling storage of the slurry for more than six months on most farms. In 2004 and 2005, the number of soil analyses increased significantly, enabling fertilization on the basis of nutrient supply and a fertilization plan.


Farm management practices are determined as decisions and practical measures defining management on farms. They include production technologies such as crop rotation, methods of soil treatment and coverage of soil with vegetation, as well as types and capacities of storage facilities for organic fertilizers*.

*the definition of the term is taken from: H. P. Piorr, U. Eppler (University of Eberswalde) in the framework of the PAIS project (Proposal on Agri-Environmental Indicators), financed by ESTAT (from 2000 to 2004).


Charts

Figure KM11-1: Shares of land cover, maize and legume crops in fields
Sources: 

Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, 2003-2008

Show data
1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
Land cover % 66.8 66.8 66.3 68.1 66.5 66.4 66.5 66.2 62.7 65.1
Legume crops % 8.3 8.2 7.7 9 8.1 8.5 8.2 8 4.2 4.6
Maize % 44.9 44.5 42.6 41.7 43 44.6 43.4 43.4 43.8 41.7
- -
Arable land and kitchen gardens ha 190984 191351 187024 184874 181404 173518 172721 172082 170849 172672
Vegetables ha 3495 3626 3139 2730 2952 2807 2707 2607 2507 2731
Other removed land ha 5115 4802 5390 5112 5090 4583 4383 4336 3579 3564
Arable crops ha 182374 182923 178495 177032 173362 166128 165631 165139 164763 166377
Cereals ha 110958 110690 103338 100765 99276 95480 95119 91122 101865 103871
Wheat and spelt ha 36413 37173 35876 36779 35159 33431 35025 31615 38256 39335
Rye ha 2692 2635 2101 1925 1938 1345 1227 911 674 745
Barley ha 8146 9093 12652 12719 12543 10828 10871 10935 11570 12664
Oats ha 2376 2388 2590 1866 1888 1817 1793 2405 2251 1917
Triticale ha 0 0 0 368 343 437 478 634 835 1227
Maize for grains ha 61220 59253 49359 46750 47123 47491 45592 44401 48009 47571
Other cereals (total) ha 713 630 1371 1004 822 658 639 835 915 1057
Other cereals - millet ha 179 119 423 255 199 160 163 183 226 157
as the main crop ha 35 48 212 96 88 38 41 80 105 36
as the successive crop ha 144 71 211 159 111 122 122 103 121 121
Other cereals - buckwheat ha 483 455 720 652 542 445 424 601 632 742
as the main crop ha 25 44 320 165 113 40 40 90 108 218
as the successive crop ha 458 411 400 487 429 405 384 511 524 524
other ha 51 56 228 97 81 53 52 51 57 158
Dried pulses (grains) ha 613 602 595 699 668 579 445 312 322 362
Fodder peas and broad beans ha 39 39
Fodder peas ha 39 43 114 105 73 9 9 9 39 39
Broad beans ha 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Dry beans ha 574 559 481 594 595 570 436 303 309 323
Dried pulses, other ha 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Root crops ha
Potato ha 12928 12434 10147 10070 9382 9186 9200 9845 8952 7785
Sugar beet ha 3153 3499 4910 6132 6341 6370 7670 10837 8116 4700
Fodder roots ha 10789 11431 11311 9928 8647 6753 6753 4921 4264 3778
Industrial crops ha 5784 5650 6735 4535 5157 4588 4482 4252 4126 4313
Oil plants ha
Oil turniprape ha 1978 1654 2278 296 149 54 77 173 122 398
Sunflowers ha 93 125 134 123 109 9 24 24 24 24
Soya ha 0 42 10 14 4 4 4 28 28 38
Pumpkins for oil ha 1232 1295 1961 1815 2596 2249 2311 2176 2147 2122
Hops ha 2398 2466 2292 2205 2233 2163 2010 1803 1766 1682
Other industrial crops ha 44 27 38 69 55 97 44 35 39 53
Fodder from arable land ha 45678 46533 49157 52231 50166 49026 47635 48061 41423 45857
Annual crops ha
Silage maize ha 24571 25900 30311 30321 30953 29953 29285 30204 26851 24491
other ha 1892 1685 1514 1906 1735 1482 1447 1276 1243 1168
Fodder dried pulses ha 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Clover and lucerne ha 4048 3985 3658 4237 3713 3885 3584 2997 2863 1892
Clover ha
Lucerne ha
Grasses and grass-cover mixtures ha 19532 19228 17652 20442 17917 17172 16785 17860 13899 21739
Grass-cover mixtures ha 11132 10959 10061 11651 10212 10297 10063 10407 3918 5583
Other fodder from arable land ha 473 485 492 321 307 264 260 286 338 470
Fallow land ha 1983 1975 1975 1812 2171 2082 1993 1904 1038 816
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
Land cover % 66.8 68.8 70 69.8 70.6 72.7
Legume crops % 5.6 7.1 8.7 9.8 12 12.2
Maize % 41.2 43 41.7 41.9 37.6 38.7
- -
Arable land and kitchen gardens ha 168414 172753 175080 176314 177780 175035
Vegetables ha 3228 3982 3631 2891 3169 2752
Other removed land ha 4062 3192 4733 6372 3690 5651
Arable crops ha 161124 165579 166716 167051 170921 166632
Cereals ha 98277 99305 99775 94637 95951 98586
Wheat and spelt ha 35729 35585 32385 30059 32083 32040
Rye ha 620 630 1109 1320 766 820
Barley ha 12392 13789 15324 15451 17044 18532
Oats ha 2014 1964 1854 2731 2471 2332
Triticale ha 1661 1820 2124 1986 2869 3091
Maize for grains ha 45525 44137 45996 42369 39839 40906
Other cereals (total) ha 1473 1380 983 1631 1114 1554
Other cereals - millet ha 276 611 339 627 168 344
as the main crop ha 67 115 277 306 120 113
as the successive crop ha 209 495 62 321 48 231
Other cereals - buckwheat ha 1169 689 578 811 547 809
as the main crop ha 241 166 210 222 360 351
as the successive crop ha 928 523 368 589 187 458
other ha 28 80 66 193 399 401
Dried pulses (grains) ha 512 723 770 2009 3905 2337
Fodder peas and broad beans ha 204 367 419 1521 3434 1971
Fodder peas ha 204 364 418 1513 3342 1970
Broad beans ha 0 3 1 8 92 1
Dry beans ha 308 351 351 451 448 355
Dried pulses, other ha 0 5 0 37 23 11
Root crops ha
Potato ha 7113 6832 6832 6306 5900 5736
Sugar beet ha 4450 5359 4658 5057 6684 0
Fodder roots ha 3722 4048 3401 3472 1834 1977
Industrial crops ha 7633 8234 7363 8050 9034 11255
Oil plants ha 6559 5826 6580 7500 9666
Oil turniprape ha 2433 2705 1945 2260 2809 5358
Sunflowers ha 20 107 56 40 156 246
Soya ha 67 40 78 172 226 126
Pumpkins for oil ha 3232 3707 3693 4108 4302 3936
Hops ha 1817 1662 1524 1453 1507 1572
Other industrial crops ha 59 13 13 17 27 17
Fodder from arable land ha 44855 55716 56985 61585 57869 59207
Annual crops ha 31525 29334 33882 28359 28474
Silage maize ha 23933 30200 27045 31525 27008 26802
other ha 1028 1325 2289 2357 1351 1672
Fodder dried pulses ha 0 0 67 184 57 0
Clover and lucerne ha 2021 2168 2357 3070 2481 3090
Clover ha 1214 1000 1445 1010 1312
Lucerne ha 954 1357 1625 1471 1778
Grasses and grass-cover mixtures ha 22013 22023 25294 24633 26725 27133
Grass-cover mixtures ha 6903 9387 12087 12059 14652 15841
Other fodder from arable land ha 1038 149 160 222 303 510
Fallow land ha 464 320 1288 2108 872 1887
Figure KM11-2: Classification of cattle breeding farms by slurry storage capacities
Sources: 

European Environment Agency, 2005; Central Cattle Breeding Database Cattle, Agricultural Institute of the Republic of Slovenia, 2005.

Show data
Slurry storage capacities in months
1-2 months % 4
3-4 months % 8.9
5-6 months % 18.3
7-8 months % 29.3
9-10 months % 19.6
>10 months % 19.9
Figure KM11-3: Number of analysed soil samples
Sources: 

Agricultural Institute of the Republic of Slovenia, 2006.

Show data
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
BF number 400 400 850 400 300 300 100 100 100 800
ERICO number 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 4000
IHPS number 548 923 938 1023 889 1145 1022 1311 1701 8316
KGZS MB number 1354 1300 1575 1399 1227 1359 1606 1670 2841 3515
KGZS MS number 655 754 789 748 682 669 887 875 1544 9918
KGZS NG number 480 320 391 387 354 453 813 903 1038 4480
KGZS PT number 218 295 398 323 398 488 565 1017 1307 4508
KIS number 1427 1095 1463 1072 1230 1222 1212 1978 2716 10755
TSO number 1800 1800 1800 2100 1800 1440 1850 1950 2300 5000
Total number 6902 6907 8224 7472 6900 7096 8075 9824 13567 51292
2005
BF number 700
ERICO number 983
IHPS number 2424
KGZS MB number 10017
KGZS MS number 8935
KGZS NG number 1909
KGZS PT number 6723
KIS number 7147
TSO number 1500
Total number 40338

Goals

The goal is to expand the management practices which enable the preservation and improvement of permanent soil fertility, prevent erosion and compaction of soil, increase efficiency in the use of plant nutrients, decrease risks of pollution of the environment with plant protection products and fertilizers, and are economically advantageous. With the introduction of intensification on farms, the sowing structure has narrowed significantly; Slovenia grows maize and wheat on almost three quarters of its land. Achieving the above-mentioned goal depends mostly on the changes in the sowing structure, especially on increased production of legume crops and individual industrial plants, and a reduced share of maize.
In livestock manure, the goal is to ensure sufficient storage capacities – very small dung pits, dunghills and other storage facilities are forcing farmers to excessive and unplanned application of manure regardless of the needs of the plants and conditions in the environment. This increases the risk of soil and water pollution. EU goals are oriented toward environmentally friendlier handling and storing of livestock manure and its use in the fields. Slovenian legislation supports such goals (Agricultural Land Act, Environment Protection Act, Regulation About Cross Compliance, Rules Concerning Good Agricultural Practice in Manuring, Decree on the Limit Input Concentration Values of Dangerous Substances and Fertilizers in Soil) and lately, a number of measures of agricultural and environmental policy have been implemented (Rural Development Plan for the Republic of Slovenia 2004–2006, National Programme of the Environment Protection).


In Slovenia’s categories of agricultural land, the most land is covered with permanent grassland and the least with arable land. In spite of that, the basic characteristic of Slovenia’s agriculture is its orientation into the production of fodder. For economic reasons, maize is by far the most predominant fodder plant. The limited sowing structure results in a relatively low level of land cover, a large share of maize and small share of legume plants in crop rotation. All these factors accelerate soil degradation processes. A slight increase in land cover and the share of legume plants in the sowing structure after 2000 is mostly due to the introduction of individual measures in the framework of the Slovenian Agri-Environmental Programme. The sowing structure is the reflection of specialized farming production, thus no significant changes are anticipated in the near future. From this aspect, the studied period of 1992-2005 is relatively short.

Adequate storage capacities enable good livestock manure management and reduce the risk of pollution of natural resources. Slovenian regulations determine that 3.5 m2 of manure facility with a 2 m3 dung pit, or a 8 m3 dung pit or lagoon for slurry must be provided per every livestock unit (LU). Types of farms where livestock manure is stored as solid dung prevail on cattle breeding farms oriented in the production of milk. About 85 % of all surveyed farms have dunghills and dung pits for slurry, 2 % of farms have only dunghills and no dung pits, and 13 % only have slurry.

The storing capacity of objects on farms with only slurry is comparable with the EU average. About 70 % of Slovenian farms can store slurry for more than six months. Concrete dung pits outside barns prevail (55 %), followed by slurry storage facilities under bars in barns (39 %), and open tanks above ground and lagoons. Farms with combined storage facilities have a relatively high storage capacity, sufficient for more than six months of slurry storing – in comparison with the EU, their total capacity is above average. Uncovered dunghills with an impermeable or concrete base present the prevalent type of livestock manure dunghills (> 90 %). In view of the type and capacity of dunghills, the situation in Slovenia is comparable with that in Finland and Sweden.

There are no data for Slovenia and the EU on their state in the past and the assessment of trends is thus impossible. Lately, the number of soil analyses has been on the increase, which enables manuring adapted to the needs of the plants. An exceptional increase in the number of these analyses in 2004 and 2005 is the consequence of the introduction of payments for the implementation of the Nitrates Directive standards, regulating manuring on the basis of soil analysis and a fertilization plan as well as other conditions.


Data for Slovenia

Rapid Reports 98/2005, Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia.
Rapid Reports 142/2004, Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia.
Rapid Reports 263/2003, Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia.
Central Cattle Breeding Database Cattle, Agricultural Institute of the Republic of Slovenia.

Calculations for land cover and maize and legume crop shares in the sowing structure were based on the statistical information on the extent of the production of arable crops and vegetables on arable land. To calculate land cover we used the method described in the final report for the IRENA 14 environmental indicator. The calculation factor is based on the number of days from sowing to harvesting individual arable crop or vegetable species or group of species. Such estimates are comparable with the estimates for other European countries, which are only partly accessible (for certain countries in 2000).

The Central Cattle Breeding Database Cattle at the Agricultural Institute of the Republic of Slovenia contains all the data on the origin and productivity of cows in the milk yield control (82,597 dairy cows on 5,352 farms). In 2005/2006, we supplemented the database with the results of the survey conducted for the purpose of analysing the state of herds on farms. In Slovenia and the EU, there are no data on the state in the past, thus an assessment of trends is not possible.

Data on the number of analysed soil samples was collected by Janez Sušin, Agricultural Institute of the Republic of Slovenia, on the basis of the breeders’ records.

Data for other countries
IRENA Indicator Fact Sheet, IRENA 14 – Farm management practice, European Environment Agency, 2005; New Cronos database, Eurostat.


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