KAZALCI OKOLJA

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In Slovenia in 2015, 93% of the population was supplied with drinking water from water supply systems that had undergone water quality monitoring in situ, at users’ taps. Drinking water monitoring excluded 7% of the Slovenian population. Generally, all residents of Slovenian cities are supplied with drinking water subjected to regular monitoring. Accessibility of drinking water did not improve significantly in the period 2004–2015.


This indicator shows the number and percentage of inhabitants of the Republic of Slovenia who are supplied with drinking water from drinking water supply systems that were included in drinking water monitoring in the period 2004-2015 and the number and percentage of the population not included in drinking water monitoring in 2015 (by statistical region).

A drinking water supply system is a supply area that may be divided into supply sub-areas (zones). A supply area is a geographically defined area supplied with drinking water from one or more water sources. Within a supply area, values of drinking water parameters are roughly uniform. The Rules on drinking water (2004) classifies supply areas into categories by size with regard to the number of inhabitants living in a supply area; in this indicator, they are partially clustered into small, mid-size and large supply areas, supplying 50–1000, 1001–10,000 and over 10,000 inhabitants, respectively.


Charts

Figure ZD05-1: Share of the Slovenian population supplied with drinking water by size of the supply zones and residents without monitoring, 2004-2015
Sources: 

Insitute of Public health, 2005-2008; The Health Insurance Institute Maribor, 2009-2014 ; National Laboratory of Health, Environment and Food, 2014-2016

Show data
2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
50-500 No. 119622 120712 115467 115692 111761 110155 104785 103307 100230 99464
501-1.000 No. 60545 63495 63881 65618 73197 74009 79237 75845 78483 74297
1.001 - 5.000 No. 257466 249602 252175 249523 248623 236644 241403 231986 253814 258608
5.001 - 10.000 No. 237706 233540 229876 220533 236392 227033 218627 358774 220651 223251
10.001 - 20.000 No. 304223 334488 323988 334102 369044 381635 396784 306982 454777 454777
20.001 - 50.000 No. 431573 403647 431688 481406 373443 324145 324145 246601 321241 323921
50.001 - 100.000 No. 292000 292000 292000 241000 300494 353743 353774 406507 357657 357657
> 100.000 No. 137000 137000 137000 137000 104600 104600 104600 104600 118700 118700
TOTAL No. 1840135 1834484 1846075 1844874 1817554 1811964 1823355 1834602 1905553 1910675
without monitoring No. 156869 166630 162441 174532 205075 230371 225906 217894 150709 148145
50-500 % 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5
501-1.000 % 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4
1.001 - 5.000 % 13 12 13 12 12 12 12 11 12 13
5.001 - 10.000 % 12 12 11 11 12 11 11 17 11 11
10.001 - 20.000 % 15 17 16 17 18 19 19 15 22 22
20.001 - 50.000 % 22 20 21 24 18 16 16 12 16 16
50.001 - 100.000 % 15 15 15 12 15 17 17 20 17 17
> 100.000 % 7 7 7 7 5 5 5 5 6 6
without monitoring % 8 8 8 9 10 11 11 11 7 7
Inhabitants of Slovenia no. 1997004 2001114 2008516 2019406 2022629 2042335 2049261 2052496 2056262 2058820
2014 2015
50-500 No. 97238 99491
501-1.000 No. 72324 74321
1.001 - 5.000 No. 257099 259383
5.001 - 10.000 No. 218651 226858
10.001 - 20.000 No. 382712 404710
20.001 - 50.000 No. 434922 460308
50.001 - 100.000 No. 283775 283775
> 100.000 No. 123124 120561
TOTAL No. 1869845 1929407
without monitoring No. 191778 133670
50-500 % 5 5
501-1.000 % 4 4
1.001 - 5.000 % 12 13
5.001 - 10.000 % 11 11
10.001 - 20.000 % 19 20
20.001 - 50.000 % 21 22
50.001 - 100.000 % 14 14
> 100.000 % 6 6
without monitoring % 9 7
Inhabitants of Slovenia no. 2061623 2063077
Figure ZD05-2: Number of supply zones by size and the population served, 2004-2015
Sources: 

Insitute of Public health, 2005-2008; The Health Insurance Institute Maribor, 2009-2014 ; National Laboratory of Health, Environment and Food, 2014-2016

Show data
2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
50-500 No. 706 721 692 697 695 688 669 634 597 583
501-1.000 No. 85 90 90 91 102 102 113 108 111 105
1.001 - 5.000 No. 112 109 111 111 110 105 108 111 115 118
5.001 - 10.000 No. 32 32 32 31 33 33 32 33 32 32
10.001 - 20.000 No. 22 24 23 24 26 27 28 28 31 31
20.001 - 50.000 No. 15 14 15 16 13 12 12 11 11 11
50.001 - 100.000 No. 4 4 4 3 4 5 5 5 5 5
> 100.000 No. 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
No. 977 995 968 974 984 973 968 931 903 886
2014 2015
50-500 No. 544 569
501-1.000 No. 102 105
1.001 - 5.000 No. 119 120
5.001 - 10.000 No. 31 32
10.001 - 20.000 No. 27 29
20.001 - 50.000 No. 16 17
50.001 - 100.000 No. 4 4
> 100.000 No. 1 1
No. 844 877
Figure ZD05-3: Share of the Slovenian population, included in the monitoring of drinking water quality, by size of the supply zone and residents without monitoring, by statistical regions in 2015
Sources: 

National Laboratory of Health, Environment and Food, 2016

Show data
Gorenjska Goriška SE Slovenia Koroška Obalno-kraška Osrednjeslovenska Podravska Pomurska Posavska Primorsko-Notranjska
small s.a.(50-1000) % 9 18 8 16 2 5 3 14 24 9
medium s.a.(1001-10.000) % 26 28 31 59 0 13 26 30 28 35
big s.a. (>10.000) % 58 47 56 0 92 81 69 49 41 57
without supervision % 7 7 4 26 6 0 3 6 8 -0
Savinjska Zasavska Slovenia
small s.a.(50-1000) % 9 15 8
medium s.a.(1001-10.000) % 25 36 24
big s.a. (>10.000) % 50 20 62
without supervision % 15 29 7
Figure ZD05-4: Share of supply zones and the residents served by type of raw water, in 2015
Sources: 

National Laboratory of Health, Environment and Food, 2016

Show data
SUPPLY ZONES POPULATION
mixed No. 25 63566
undefined No. 14 2405
underground No. 467 1272294
surface No. 371 591142
total No. 877 1929407
mixed % 3 3
undefined % 2 0
underground % 53 66
surface % 42 31
Total % 100 100

Goals

  • To provide access to safe drinking water in sufficient quantities to all inhabitants of Slovenia;
  • to connect inhabitants, particularly those supplied by small and poorly managed systems, to large, professionally managed and controlled water supply systems or to improve the management and technical compliance of small systems according to equal principles to ensure safe drinking water for everyone;
  • to carry out monitoring of all systems within the parameters of regular and periodical testing of samples;
  • to inform inhabitants connected to small systems supplying fewer than 50 people that the Rules on drinking water are not implemented in these systems (there is no monitoring and control), inform them of possible measures to protect health from harmful factors and to forward them recommendations for acting in the event of reasonable suspicion that drinking water represents a potential hazard to human health.

Untreated drinking water can be classified as surface or subterranean water. Surface water includes inland waters (e.g. rivers and lakes) and sea. Due to their exposure to pollution, the quality of surface waters is questionable. In hygiene, surface waters also include waters where micro- or macroorganisms are present and waters with changed properties that are closely related to the characteristics of atmosphere, land and surface waters. In Slovenia, such waters are karst waters with a limited self-purification capacity. Other waters are grouped under the term subterranean waters, i.e. groundwater (Pitna voda [Drinking water], National Institute of Public Health).

In 2015, 66% (1,272,294) of inhabitants of Slovenia were supplied from groundwater sources in 53% (467) of supply areas, while 31% (591,142) were supplied from surface water sources or water sources under the influence of the surface. 3% (63,566) of inhabitants were supplied from mixed sources (surface as well as subterranean) in 3% (25) of supply areas. Unknown types of untreated water or drinking water sources supplied 2,405 (0.1%) inhabitants in 14 (2%) supply areas (National laboratory of health, environment and food, 2016).

Approximately 93% (or 1,929,407) of the population of the Republic of Slovenia was supplied with drinking water in supply areas that were included in drinking water monitoring in 2015. Of these 93%, two thirds (66% or 1,269,354) were supplied in large supply areas with a supply capacity of more than 10,000 people, while 78% (1,496,212) were supplied in supply areas with a capacity of more than 5,000 people (10% or 83 supply areas). In total, 85% of the population was supplied in supply areas with a capacity of more than 1,000 people, which includes large and mid-sized supply areas (23% or 203 supply areas), while a further 9% were supplied in supply areas with a capacity of 50–1,000 people (77% or 674 supply areas). The remaining 7% of the population was not included in monitoring (no water quality control). In the period 2004–2015, 7–11% of the population supplied from systems with a capacity of fewer than 50 people was not included in monitoring (the lowest number [133,670] in 2015 and the highest [230,371] in 2009). (no water quality control, own drinking water supply) (National laboratory of health, environment and food, 2016).

It is evident from the databases on drinking water supply systems and on the compliance of drinking water that the number of supply areas that supplied 50 or more inhabitants was between 844 in 2014 and 995 in 2005. Differences also exist in the number of supply areas with regard to supply capacity, which is a consequence of improving records and the abandonment of small supply areas and connecting of people to larger ones (Institute of Public Health of the Republic of Slovenia, 2005–2008; Institute of Public Health Maribor, 2009–2013; National Laboratory of Health, Environment and Food, 2014–2016).

As regards statistical regions in 2015, the highest percentage of the population living in large supply areas (above-average) was recorded in the Coastal-Kras region (92%), the Central Slovenia region (81%) and the Podravje region (69%). The highest percentages of the population not included in monitoring of drinking water quality lived in the Zasavje region (29%), the Koroška region (26%) and the Savinjska region (15%) (National Laboratory of Health, Environment and Food, 2014–2016).

Drinking water quality was largely adequate in large supply areas, in which about 20% of the population is supplied with drinking water that requires no treatment; these are supply areas with groundwater sources with no treatment, supplying more than 5000 people each (14 supply areas, 410,000 people in total). From the perspective of public health, the smallest supply areas (supplying 50–500 people each) are problematic. In total, 5% of the population is supplied with drinking water in such supply areas. These supply areas are largely microbiologically (faecal contamination in particular) polluted, while the data on their chemical pollution is insufficient – it was only available for 5–10% of supply areas by health region in the period 2006–2010, (other areas each year), and for 10% in 2014 and 2015. Most systems (570 or 65% in 2015) that supply 50–500 people each were included in monitoring due to the requirements of the Rules on drinking water (2004) and the EU Drinking Water Directive (1998). Mostly, these systems do not meet the drinking water requirements and do not provide safe drinking water pursuant to regulations (lack of professional management, poorly managed water protection areas, etc.). They need to be refitted and properly equipped or abandoned and the inhabitants need to be connected to larger, properly managed supply areas (Institute of Public Health of the Republic of Slovenia, 2005–2008; Institute of Public Health Maribor, 2009–2013; National Laboratory of Health, Environment and Food, 2014–2016).

As in previous years, there were two cities in Slovenia in 2015 with more than 100,000 inhabitants each – Ljubljana and Maribor. The populations of both cities live in supply areas that are included in drinking water monitoring. According to the Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia (data from 1 July 2015), the populations of Ljubljana and Maribor (399,082 combined) represent 19% of the total Slovenian population. When the urban environment is considered to include cities with a population greater than 100,000 (Ljubljana: 287,347, Maribor: 111,735) and the rural environment is considered to include all other settlements, we can conclude that in Slovenia, all people living in urban environments are supplied with drinking water that is subject to regular monitoring, while the remaining 81% (1,663,995) of the population, which lives in rural areas, is supplied with drinking water that is either monitored/controlled (approx. 92% or 1,530,325 people) or without any quality control (approx. 8% or 133,670 people) (Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, 2015).

 



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