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The volume of passenger transport in Slovenia has been increasing; primarily on account of the most non-sustainable transport mode – car transport. In the last decade, the share of bus transport has strongly decreased, while the volume of rail passenger transport started to decrease after a long period of slow growth; since 2002, the number of air passengers has been increasing sharply.


The indicator shows the modal split in passenger transport in the Republic of Slovenia and in the group of selected European countries. The data for Slovenia indicates the development of passenger kilometres in bus, rail and air transport and the development of the number of passengers in municipal public transport in the period 1990-2007; the data for the group of selected European countries indicates the shares of use of transport modes in passenger transport for the period 1990-2003.


Charts

Figure PR01-1: The number of passenger kilometres in road transport with passenger cars and busses, road public transport and rail national transport
Sources: 

Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia: Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Slovenia 1996-2010 and SI-STAT Data portal, 2011.

Show data
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
road transport with passengers cars passenger-km (mio.) 13320 12606 13386 13979 15178 16338 17794 19010 18980 20074
road transport with buses passenger-km (mio.) 6508 5554 4170 3894 4053 4113 4301 4379 3876 4138
road public transport passenger-km (mio.) 6444 4282 3377 2751 2595 2507 2348 2195 2098 1940
rail national transport passenger-km (mio.) 1166 656 404 453 475 490 510 511 520 523
road transport with passengers cars index (1990=100) 100 95 100 105 114 123 134 143 142 151
road transport with buses index (1990=100) 100 85 64 60 62 63 66 67 60 64
road public transport index (1990=100) 100 66 52 43 40 39 36 34 33 30
rail national transport index (1990=100) 100 56 35 39 41 42 44 44 45 45
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
road transport with passengers cars passenger-km (mio.) 20325 20801 21287 21331 22042 22509 23018 24355 24878 25775
road transport with buses passenger-km (mio.) 3502 3393 3339 3446 3218 3061 3062 3235 3146 3196
road public transport passenger-km (mio.) 1581 1470 1143 1065 1000 862 850 817 815 777
rail national transport passenger-km (mio.) 593 594 622 650 648 666 675 690 713 718
road transport with passengers cars index (1990=100) 153 156 160 160 165 169 173 183 187 194
road transport with buses index (1990=100) 54 52 51 53 49 47 47 50 48 49
road public transport index (1990=100) 25 23 18 17 16 13 13 13 13 12
rail national transport index (1990=100) 51 51 53 56 56 57 58 59 61 62
2010
road transport with passengers cars passenger-km (mio.) 25636
road transport with buses passenger-km (mio.) 3183
road public transport passenger-km (mio.) 733
rail national transport passenger-km (mio.) 680
road transport with passengers cars index (1990=100) 192
road transport with buses index (1990=100) 49
road public transport index (1990=100) 11
rail national transport index (1990=100) 58
Figure PR01-2: The number of passengers by type of transport and traffic
Sources: 

Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia: Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Slovenia 1996-2010 and SI-STAT Data Portal, 2011

Show data
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
urban public transport number of passenegers (1000) 167665 188465 168542 159428 155463 155425 159375 158684 150988 148321
road public transport number of passenegers (1000) 280801 205001 146107 130586 125344 121573 113411 109801 102561 96573
rail national public transport number of passenegers (1000) 19427 14264 10955 11594 12113 12422 12870 12743 12972 12987
airport traffic number of passenegers (1000) 747 336 274 422 504 649 679 728 807 916
port traffic number of passenegers (1000) 63 21 14 39 42 40 32 44 41 38
urban public transport index (1990=100) 100 112 101 95 93 93 95 95 90 88
road public transport index (1990=100) 100 73 52 47 45 43 40 39 37 34
rail national public transport index (1990=100) 100 73 56 60 62 64 66 66 67 67
airport traffic index (1990=100) 100 45 37 56 67 87 91 97 108 123
port traffic index (1990=100) 100 33 22 62 67 63 51 70 65 60
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
urban public transport number of passenegers (1000) 130031 105599 103938 98373 100245 97227 93953 90654 90024 83500
road public transport number of passenegers (1000) 74560 72504 57955 54538 43084 39759 37964 38532 38751 36720
rail national public transport number of passenegers (1000) 14171 13585 13593 14152 13985 14917 15275 15232 15753 15434
airport traffic number of passenegers (1000) 1012 886 866 925 1046 1227 1338 1536 1666 1435
port traffic number of passenegers (1000) 38 34 42 47 42 35 30 51 50 78
urban public transport index (1990=100) 78 63 62 59 60 58 56 54 54 50
road public transport index (1990=100) 27 26 21 19 15 14 14 14 14 13
rail national public transport index (1990=100) 73 70 70 73 72 77 79 78 81 79
airport traffic index (1990=100) 135 119 116 124 140 164 179 206 223 192
port traffic index (1990=100) 60 54 67 75 67 56 48 81 79 124
2010
urban public transport number of passenegers (1000) 82789
road public transport number of passenegers (1000) 34769
rail national public transport number of passenegers (1000) 15294
airport traffic number of passenegers (1000) 1402
port traffic number of passenegers (1000) 71
urban public transport index (1990=100) 49
road public transport index (1990=100) 12
rail national public transport index (1990=100) 79
airport traffic index (1990=100) 188
port traffic index (1990=100) 113
Figure PR01-3: Shares of passenger transport services in the EU-27 in 2008 (data based on passenger-km)
Sources: 

EUROSTAT, Modal split of passenger transport, 2011

Show data
Hungary Slovakia Bulgaria Czech Republic Malta Romania Belgium Austria Estonia Denmark
Car passenger-km (bn.) 42 26.4 43.2 72.4 1.7 70.5 110.9 73.3 10.5 52.9
Rail passenger-km (bn.) 8.3 2.3 2.3 6.8 0 7 10.1 10.4 0.3 6.3
Bus passenger-km (bn.) 17.4 6.6 11.4 16.1 0.5 13.9 20.4 9.6 2.5 7.4
Total passenger-km (bn.) 67.7 35.3 56.9 95.2 2.2 91.3 141.4 93.2 13.2 66.5
Car % 62.1 74.9 75.9 76 76.7 77.2 78.4 78.6 79.4 79.4
Rail % 12.3 6.5 4.1 7.1 0 7.6 7.2 11.1 2.1 9.4
Bus % 25.7 18.6 20 16.9 23.3 15.2 14.4 10.2 18.5 11.1
Spain Latvia Greece Cyprus Italy Sweden EU-27 Ireland France Luxembourg
Car passenger-km (bn.) 339.1 14.3 100 5.8 719.6 98.4 1780.8 49 720.2 6.7
Rail passenger-km (bn.) 23.5 0.9 1.7 0 49.5 11 140.3 2 86.5 0.3
Bus passenger-km (bn.) 60.9 2.5 22.1 1.3 103.9 8.8 305 7.5 48.6 0.9
Total passenger-km (bn.) 423.4 17.7 123.8 7.1 873 118.2 2226.1 58.5 855.2 8
Car % 80.1 80.6 80.8 81.2 82.4 83.3 83.3 83.8 84.2 84.2
Rail % 5.5 5.3 1.3 0 5.7 9.3 7.3 3.4 10.1 4.3
Bus % 14.4 14.1 17.9 18.8 11.9 7.4 9.4 12.8 5.7 11.4
Finland Germany Portugal Poland Slovenia The Netherlands United Kingdom Lithuania
Car passenger-km (bn.) 63.4 852.3 87 273.5 24.9 147 679 38
Rail passenger-km (bn.) 4.1 85.6 4.2 19.8 0.8 16.5 52.9 0.4
Bus passenger-km (bn.) 7.5 63.5 10.9 26.8 3.1 6.5 50.1 3.4
Total passenger-km (bn.) 75 1001.4 102.2 320.1 28.9 170 782 41.8
Car % 84.5 85.1 85.2 85.5 86.2 86.5 86.8 90.9
Rail % 5.4 8.6 4.1 6.2 2.9 9.7 6.8 1
Bus % 10.1 6.3 10.7 8.4 10.9 3.8 6.4 8.2

Goals

- Increase the volume and quality of public road and rail transport (RePPRS)
- Development of intermodal hubs and the increase of the role of transport for medium and short distances (Operational Programme of Environmental and Transport Infrastructure Development for the Period 2007–2013)
- Provision of reliable, safe, competitive and environmentally-friendly passenger transport (Operational Programme of Environmental and Transport Infrastructure Development for the Period 2007–2013)
- Increase in the number of transported passenger by rail (Operational Programme of Environmental and Transport Infrastructure Development for the Period 2007–2013)


The modal split in passenger transport is an important indicator of the functioning of the transport system, since it indicates to which extent and by what mode residents of a country, region or town actually travel. The selection of transport modes is important due to the differences in environmental, economic and social effectiveness of individual transport modes and consequently the different impacts of their use.

The monitoring of travel patterns of residents and the balance between the use of various transport modes is difficult in Slovenia due to the lack of appropriate data. There is no accurate data on the volume of car transport in Slovenia as well as no complete review of the modal split in passenger transport. Nevertheless, according to the increase of GDP, lower public transport demand, increase in motorisation, energy consumption in transport, burdening of road infrastructure and policies in the countries with available data, we can come to the conclusion that the entire volume of passenger transport is increasing; primarily due to the faster growth of the use of passenger cars. Furthermore, this is also confirmed by the assessment of the volume of transport by passenger cars, prepared annually by the Slovenian Roads Agency. According to this assessment, 10.1 billion passenger kilometres with passenger cars were travelled on Slovenian state roads in 2007, which is almost 4 % more than a year before and one third more (33 %) than in 1997 (Slovenian Roads Agency, 2009). This assessment is based on the calculation from the length of state road network and its average burden by passenger cars. However, this is only a rough assessment of the transport part, which does not consider the actual length of travelled kilometres and transport on other (local) roads in the country; therefore, it is not an appropriate compensation for the data that would be obtained by a national transport study.

According to the volume and growth, other land transport modes (buses, trains) are still behind the transport by passenger cars. The situation is especially concerning in bus passenger transport, since in the last decade the number of passengers in inter-urban bus transport dropped by 63 % and in urban bus transport by 43 %. Rail passenger transport has been slowly increasing again after a vast decrease in the 90's. On the other hand, the number of air passengers has been quickly increasing in the last few years(in 2007 by 14 %)due to the entry of Slovenia into the EU and the Schengen area and the arrival of low-cost air carriers (Aerodrom Ljubljana, 2009).

Numerous indicators (development of motorisation, investments in infrastructure, changes in locations of settlement, non-competitiveness of public passenger transport, etc.) indicate a continuation of extreme “automobilisation” of passenger transport in Slovenia. The state and the local communities have contributed to this by encouraging such development by their methods of solving the transport problem. Nevertheless, the situation in urban areas, which are as settlement areas mostly burdened by transport and its impacts, is forcing the local and state administration into different types of action. Therefore, the initial shift to sustainable development of transport can be expected at local level in urban areas.

The use of passenger cars is prevailing also in the passenger transport at the EU level (in 2003, 75 % of passenger kilometres in the EU-15, 74 % in the EEA-23 and 73 % in the EU-5). The strong increase in air passenger transport after 1990 has been environmentally very significant, while the share of passenger kilometres by buses and trains has been slowly decreasing (EEA, 2006).


Data for Slovenia

Objectives summarised by: Resolution on Transport Policy of the Republic of Slovenia (RePPRS), OG RS, no. 58/2006 and Operational Programme of Environmental and Transport Infrastructure Development for the Period 2007–2013.
Source database or source: Statistical Yearbooks of the Republic of Slovenia 1996–2008.
Data administrator: Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia (SORS).
Date of acquisition for this indicator: 23 June 2009
Methodology and frequency of data collection for the indicator: The data on the modal split in passenger transport in Slovenia is collected by the SORS and published in the regular annual serial publication “Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Slovenia”. The data on rail transport is reported by Slovenske železnice (Slovenian Railways); since 2004, the data on road passenger transport in public transport is reported by business entities registered for this activity, having a concession contract for the provision of public utility services and performing the public regular transport of passengers in road transport on at least five routes in accordance with the Road Transport Act. However, the transport of passenger performed by private entrepreneurs, taxis and passenger cars is not considered. The data on air transport includes only the largest Slovenian air carrier, which is becoming a huge deficiency due to the increasing share of other air carriers on our market. Therefore, the data in the comment is supplemented by the data on the number of passengers at Jože Pučnik Ljubljana Airport. The data on urban passenger transport refers to transport in Ljubljana and Maribor, and since 2004 also to transport in some other towns with organised urban passenger transport.
Data processing methodology: The modal split in passenger transport is expressed by the indicator of passenger transport demand – passenger kilometres. A passenger kilometre (pkm) is the sum of the multiplication of the number of passengers and distances, on which the passengers were transported (SORS, 2004). The volume of passenger transport is expressed by the sum of all travelled passenger kilometres in the considered area and in the determined time period; the structure is expressed by the share of passenger kilometres by individual transport modes (modal split).
Information concerning data quality:
- Advantages and disadvantages (at data level): The fundamental disadvantages of the indicator is that the data on the volume of transport by passenger cars in Slovenia, similarly to the case in the majority of other new EU Member States, has not been collected. Furthermore, another disadvantages of the indicator is that the data on air transport includes only the largest Slovenian air carrier.
- Relevance, accuracy, robustness, uncertainty (at data level): With the exception of air transport, the data is considered as fairly reliable and accurate.
Reliability of the indicator (archive data): The data refers to a longer time period.
Uncertainty of the indicator (scenarios/projections): Projections have not been prepared.
- Overall assessment (1 = no major comments, 3 = data to be considered with reservation): 2
Relevance: 2 (the data on the volume of transport by passenger cars is not included)
Accuracy: 2 (the data on air transport includes only the largest Slovenian air carrier)
Completeness over time: 1
Completeness over space: 1

Data for other countries

Source database or source:TERM 2006 12b – Modal shares in passenger transport, Indicator Fact Sheet
Data administrator: European Environment Agency (EEA)
Date of acquisition for this indicator: 23 June 2009
Methodology and frequency of data collection for the indicator: The EEA has been obtaining data on the modal shares in passenger transport from the common questionnaire, prepared by Eurostat, the European Conference of Transport Ministers (ECMT) and the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). Since 2003, the data on rail transport within the EU has been collected separately on the basis of the EU Regulation on Rail Transport Statistics (EC no. 91/2003).
Data processing methodology: The missing values were obtained by methods of linear interpolation and extrapolation and by considering the situation in neighbouring countries with a similar level of development in passenger transport.
Geographical coverage: The EEA-23 includes the group of 23 countries for which sufficient data is available. This group is composed of the EU-15 Member States (Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Spain, France, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Austria, Portugal, Finland, Sweden and the United Kingdom), 5 new EU-5 Member States (Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Hungary), plus Norway, Iceland and Turkey.
Information concerning data quality:
- Advantages and disadvantages (at data level): The data on passenger-km is estimated and not directly recorded. However, since the same methodology has been used for many years, the trends generally give a good indication of the developments in passenger transport demand.
- Relevance, accuracy, robustness, uncertainty (at data level): Data is considered to be fairly reliable and consistent for the EU-15; for Central and Eastern European countries the data is generally much less reliable and much less comparable.
Reliability of the indicator (archive data): The data refers to a longer time period.
Uncertainty of the indicator (scenarios/projections): Projections have not been prepared.
- Overall assessment (1 = no major comments, 3 = data to be considered with reservation):
Relevance: 2 (Vehicle-km provides a better unit of measurement, since it is more directly linked to the environmental impact of transport movements)
Accuracy: 3 (Passenger-km figures are estimated (more uncertainty for cars than for buses/trains etc.) rather than measured and vary by source (Eurostat, ECMT, UNECE etc.))
Completeness over time: 2 (some extrapolations for 1990-1992 and 2001)
Completeness over space: 2 (certain differences between countries by not considering some transport modes).

Other sources and literature:
- Ljubljana Airport, 2009: Transport (23 June 2009).
- Slovenian Roads Agency, 2009: Performed kilometres in the period 1997–2007 on state roads in the Republic of Slovenia. Ljubljana, Slovenian Roads Agency (23 June 2009).
- SORS, 2004: Glossary for Transport Statistics. (UNECE, ECMT, Eurostat). Ljubljana, Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia (23 June 2009).


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