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In the 1961–2008 period, the trend of growing absolute maximum and absolute minimum temperature was observed, which points to climate change. The number of hot days has been rising, and the number of cold days has been decreasing. The data on maximum snow cover depth everywhere in lower parts of the country reveals a downward trend. Nevertheless, in certain areas, Slovenia is encountering even greater and more significant deviations from the long-term avarages with regard to precipitation (storms, hail).


The indicator shows annual extremes: the minimum and the maximum air temperatures, the number of days with temperatures above and below the selected threshold, and the maximum snow cover depth in six places across Slovenia. Characteristics of heavy precipitation and storms are described in words.


Charts

Figure PS07-1: Absolute maximum and absolute minimum temperature
Sources: 

Meteorological Data Archives EARS, Meteorological Office, Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia, 2008

Show data
1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970
maks. Kredarica °C 15.4 17.4 14 16.7 16.3 16.7 16.6 16.8 15.6 17
maks. Rateče °C 29 29.8 28.6 28.4 30.4 29.4 30.6 30.4 30.5 29.3
maks. Murska Sobota °C 33.6 32.6 33.9 31.2 32 30.6 33.3 37.2 33.2 31.8
maks. Novo mesto °C 33.8 33.9 35.4 32.3 34 30.4 34.2 36.2 31.8 32.6
maks. Ljubljana °C 33.9 33.5 33.8 32.2 34.7 31.3 33.5 35.3 33.6 33.2
maks. Portorož °C
min. Kredarica °C -24.1 -25.8 -28 -21 -22.8 -21.3 -21.7 -26.7 -22.6 -22.6
min. Rateče °C -21.2 -19 -23.2 -19.7 -19.8 -20.2 -20.4 -24.8 -23 -22
min. Murska Sobota °C -22.4 -16.7 -31 -21.2 -18.4 -22.1 -23.8 -25.5 -27.6 -18.8
min. Novo mesto °C -20.4 -17 -23.6 -17.1 -16.9 -17.8 -22.3 -23.4 -21.6 -18.4
min. Ljubljana °C -15.2 -13.8 -20.2 -15.3 -11.5 -15.3 -13.7 -19.7 -16.3 -13.7
min. Portorož °C
1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980
maks. Kredarica °C 18.1 17.4 16.1 16.6 18.4 15 13.8 14.6 14 17.8
maks. Rateče °C 32.1 29.2 28.4 30.7 28 30 28.8 26.7 27.4 28.5
maks. Murska Sobota °C 34.4 32.4 30.4 32.4 29.8 32.3 31.2 29.4 30.5 30.8
maks. Novo mesto °C 36.4 32.5 31.7 32.9 31.2 32.6 31.1 31 32.6 31.6
maks. Ljubljana °C 36.5 33.2 31.4 33.1 32 34 32 29.6 31.8 32.8
maks. Portorož °C
min. Kredarica °C -28.1 -19.1 -24 -17.7 -20.6 -22.2 -19.1 -19.9 -27.8 -22.2
min. Rateče °C -22 -15.2 -18.8 -12.2 -17.6 -19.8 -17.7 -21.2 -22.7 -20.1
min. Murska Sobota °C -18.6 -14 -17.5 -7.7 -11.2 -22.4 -20.7 -23.6 -20 -22.2
min. Novo mesto °C -14.5 -10.9 -15.6 -7.5 -10.8 -15.9 -11.6 -16.7 -17 -17.3
min. Ljubljana °C -14.7 -10 -16 -6.7 -9.9 -14.6 -8.4 -12.2 -14.5 -15.2
min. Portorož °C
1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990
maks. Kredarica °C 18 16.6 21.6 18.2 16 14.3 17 15.8 15.1 15.9
maks. Rateče °C 29 28.8 36.1 31.8 29.3 29.7 27.8 29.8 29.1 28.4
maks. Murska Sobota °C 32.1 31.8 35.6 31.2 31.8 32.7 33.1 34.8 30.9 32.4
maks. Novo mesto °C 31.7 31.7 34.7 33.5 32.1 32.5 31.7 34.3 30.4 33
maks. Ljubljana °C 33.7 32.8 37.1 33.3 33.1 32.7 33.2 34.9 32 33.4
maks. Portorož °C 33 34.9
min. Kredarica °C -25.1 -23.4 -22.7 -21.1 -28.3 -22.6 -24.2 -21.4 -17.6 -19.6
min. Rateče °C -21.8 -19.3 -20.2 -20.4 -26.4 -22 -24.3 -19.2 -14.2 -14.4
min. Murska Sobota °C -21.6 -19 -17.4 -19.6 -26.4 -22.7 -26.9 -16.6 -13.1 -14.1
min. Novo mesto °C -16.1 -12.2 -15.2 -13.7 -23.5 -17.1 -19.4 -15.1 -11.6 -13.4
min. Ljubljana °C -14.4 -10.6 -14.1 -12.9 -20.3 -13.3 -18.3 -14.5 -11.4 -11.1
min. Portorož °C -6.9 -5
1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
maks. Kredarica °C 16.6 17.8 15.4 16.1 17.8 14.3 16.8 17.8 17.4 18
maks. Rateče °C 30.5 33.2 30.4 31.6 30.1 29.2 27.8 32.4 29.3 31
maks. Murska Sobota °C 33.2 37.2 35.2 34.1 31.4 32.2 30.4 33.5 32.9 37.9
maks. Novo mesto °C 33.2 36.2 35.6 34.7 31.4 32 30 33.8 33.3 36.7
maks. Ljubljana °C 34.2 36.5 34.9 34.7 33.5 33.3 30.8 34.1 33.1 35.6
maks. Portorož °C 33.6 34.7 34.1 35.7 34.4 34.4 31.4 36.3 33 35
min. Kredarica °C -25.3 -22.7 -25.2 -22.6 -20.8 -26.3 -17.8 -19.9 -24.8 -23.7
min. Rateče °C -20.4 -15.6 -18.2 -17.6 -15.5 -20.8 -13.1 -16.7 -20.3 -20.4
min. Murska Sobota °C -17.1 -11.5 -17.3 -17.5 -19.4 -21.3 -13.4 -15.6 -16 -14.6
min. Novo mesto °C -15.8 -12.3 -18.6 -14 -11.7 -17.1 -9.5 -14.4 -14 -15.7
min. Ljubljana °C -14.6 -11.3 -12.6 -10.6 -9.2 -13 -9.1 -13.1 -11.9 -14
min. Portorož °C -10.3 -6.2 -6.8 -8.2 -6.4 -8.5 -4.4 -6.3 -5.5 -9.5
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
maks. Kredarica °C 16.9 16.7 18.6 15.6 18.4 17.3 18.2 16.4
maks. Rateče °C 30.3 31.7 34.3 31.4 30.8 32.6 32.3 30.5
maks. Murska Sobota °C 35.6 34.1 38.4 33.4 33.4 33.3 39.1 33.2
maks. Novo mesto °C 35.5 34 38.4 33 33.4 34.4 36.6 32.7
maks. Ljubljana °C 35.2 34.9 37.3 34.3 35 35.9 37 32.7
maks. Portorož °C 34.7 34 36.9 34.9 34.6 35.9 36.7 33.5
min. Kredarica °C -24.2 -19.6 -20.9 -19.2 -25.8 -19.1 -18.4 -18.9
min. Rateče °C -18.1 -17.5 -21 -20.1 -24.3 -20.4 -14 -16.7
min. Murska Sobota °C -22 -13.7 -21.6 -18.8 -24.1 -22.6 -8.2 -11
min. Novo mesto °C -15.1 -12.4 -18.2 -15.2 -17.2 -16.1 -9.4 -9.6
min. Ljubljana °C -14.5 -12.9 -16.2 -11.2 -14.1 -15.7 -6.9 -7.7
min. Portorož °C -7.8 -7.5 -8.8 -8.6 -10.5 -8.6 -3.6 -6.7
Figure PS07-2: Number of days vith maximum temperature above 30°C
Sources: 

Meteorological Data Archives EARS, Meteorological Office, Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia, 2008

Show data
1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970
Kredarica number of days 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Rateče number of days 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0
Murska Sobota number of days 9 8 16 3 3 2 13 8 5 4
Novo mesto number of days 10 19 15 3 10 4 15 8 7 6
Ljubljana number of days 11 18 14 9 11 4 19 8 9 12
Portorož number of days
1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980
Kredarica number of days 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Rateče number of days 1 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0
Murska Sobota number of days 12 7 2 12 0 6 2 0 6 4
Novo mesto number of days 12 8 5 8 2 7 2 2 9 4
Ljubljana number of days 18 10 9 18 5 8 4 0 7 8
Portorož number of days
1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990
Kredarica number of days 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Rateče number of days 0 0 8 3 0 0 0 0 0 0
Murska Sobota number of days 6 5 14 2 9 7 12 19 6 11
Novo mesto number of days 7 3 11 6 8 10 10 16 4 9
Ljubljana number of days 8 10 18 5 17 12 12 24 7 10
Portorož number of days 10 17
1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
Kredarica number of days 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Rateče number of days 1 14 1 7 1 0 0 5 0 2
Murska Sobota number of days 11 36 29 30 7 6 1 18 10 33
Novo mesto number of days 9 22 25 25 6 7 2 23 13 31
Ljubljana number of days 17 28 21 32 16 7 3 33 13 29
Portorož number of days 28 28 24 52 23 8 10 37 29 25
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Kredarica number of days 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Rateče number of days 3 3 17 3 3 12 8 1
Murska Sobota number of days 32 21 55 15 14 27 29 20
Novo mesto number of days 30 12 58 14 15 25 23 16
Ljubljana number of days 29 15 54 14 16 31 24 18
Portorož number of days 37 18 70 24 25 39 37 42
Figure PS07-3: Number of days vith maximum temperature below 0°C
Sources: 

Meteorological Data Archives EARS, Meteorological Office, Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia, 2008

Show data
1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970
Kredarica number of days 131 187 148 171 174 156 142 165 166 174
Rateče number of days 31 43 56 41 39 33 35 43 57 40
Murska Sobota number of days 25 33 60 35 18 23 19 38 42 28
Novo mesto number of days 18 31 54 32 14 18 20 29 38 25
Ljubljana number of days 22 31 49 31 17 23 20 28 35 22
Portorož number of days
1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980
Kredarica number of days 162 172 162 196 165 171 141 164 163 167
Rateče number of days 36 45 27 6 15 35 28 40 31 48
Murska Sobota number of days 36 32 15 1 5 25 16 30 18 31
Novo mesto number of days 26 30 13 3 6 22 13 26 14 24
Ljubljana number of days 29 22 14 1 11 17 9 20 12 21
Portorož number of days
1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990
Kredarica number of days 148 151 130 166 164 149 160 149 126 127
Rateče number of days 34 26 25 36 43 45 41 13 13 26
Murska Sobota number of days 17 28 24 19 40 45 39 10 14 20
Novo mesto number of days 16 26 18 20 32 37 28 6 7 16
Ljubljana number of days 17 21 11 16 31 36 23 13 6 16
Portorož number of days 0 0
1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
Kredarica number of days 165 131 128 137 148 159 143 147 126 124
Rateče number of days 45 21 28 17 28 37 22 28 26 18
Murska Sobota number of days 24 12 28 16 23 46 22 23 27 19
Novo mesto number of days 20 15 24 13 16 46 15 19 20 12
Ljubljana number of days 25 15 21 5 7 37 12 17 20 12
Portorož number of days 1 0 1 1 0 3 0 0 0 0
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Kredarica number of days 151 121 144 142 142 132 127 151
Rateče number of days 33 21 22 29 50 28 7 16
Murska Sobota number of days 20 21 23 19 22 27 15 10
Novo mesto number of days 15 18 22 14 19 14 18 9
Ljubljana number of days 17 14 14 14 11 15 11 8
Portorož number of days 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Figure PS07-4: Maximum snow cover depth
Sources: 

Meteorological Data Archives EARS, Meteorological Office, Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia, 2008

Show data
1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970
Kredarica cm 318 335 304 282 391 270 348 362 392 450
Rateče cm 82 95 125 96 178 68 110 101 181 167
Murska Sobota cm 10 43 53 22 23 23 23 14 50 30
Novo mesto cm 22 42 59 52 30 37 57 20 103 34
Ljubljana cm 41 21 54 42 39 37 40 49 95 45
Portorož cm
1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980
Kredarica cm 299 411 405 360 560 300 690 587 630 420
Rateče cm 107 100 130 85 135 112 104 190 102 106
Murska Sobota cm 28 24 17 3 3 31 18 23 17 31
Novo mesto cm 51 35 37 20 7 52 21 28 27 40
Ljubljana cm 53 49 12 11 14 69 28 35 20 30
Portorož cm
1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990
Kredarica cm 280 350 390 500 495 490 405 425 220 310
Rateče cm 118 92 82 173 90 113 114 75 17 71
Murska Sobota cm 38 11 42 25 24 61 44 12 0 10
Novo mesto cm 37 19 50 54 45 50 43 20 4 9
Ljubljana cm 31 14 67 47 55 46 89 15 1 7
Portorož cm 0 0
1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
Kredarica cm 440 380 205 370 380 325 250 315 385 325
Rateče cm 110 42 73 75 71 98 58 26 119 40
Murska Sobota cm 20 4 35 30 30 33 27 16 31 7
Novo mesto cm 22 32 50 62 44 52 25 25 65 17
Ljubljana cm 21 20 18 32 30 35 39 21 56 11
Portorož cm 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Kredarica cm 700 195 240 465 245 495 300 435
Rateče cm 38 14 45 125 107 124 82 132
Murska Sobota cm 21 8 27 18 46 37 9 5
Novo mesto cm 16 19 52 42 37 24 28 11
Ljubljana cm 14 21 26 41 40 32 19 17
Portorož cm 0 0 3 0 7 0 0 0

Goals

Monitoring, analysis, mitigating the adverse effects and sensitivity caused by extreme weather events, and incorporating adjustment mechanisms into development plans


In the 1961–2008 period, the trend of growing absolute maximum and absolute minimum temperatures was observed, which points to climate change. The absolute annual minimum temperature has been growing, whereas this trend is less apparent with absolute maximum air temperature. The summer of 2003 stands out for its temperatures; it was exceptional due to its length and heat intensity. During this summer, some record high temperatures were recorded, along with a record number of hot days. No summer recorded in the long-term series of data, which comprises information for more than a century and half in this region, can be compared to the summer of 2003. The number of hot days is rising and the number of cold days is decreasing. However, considerable differences exist among individual years. According to the foreseen development of the global climate, an average summer in the second half of this century will be as hot as the summer of 2003. 2001 was exceptional for its snow cover, which reached record depths in high mountainous regions, while in the lower regions, the same winter was ordinary. The data on the maximum depth of snow cover across the country reveals the downward trend, which is least noticeable in high mountainous regions. There is also a possibility for a warmer climate to trigger more heavy winter snowfalls in high mountainous regions. However, gradual global warming does not mean that we shouldn't expect extremely deep snow cover in the future. This was the case at the end of 2005. Even in the future, we can still anticipate exceptional penetration of cold air, which was confirmed by the minimum temperatures in 2005. In 2006, the beginning of March was marked by unusual snowfall, which caused a lot of problems in traffic and for vegetation. Snow cover was exceptionally deep in the western Julian Alps in the last two months of 2008.

Nevertheless, Slovenia is encountering even greater and more significant deviations with regard to precipitation. In light of calculated trends and deviations of the mean of the last period (1991–2007) from the reference period, a homogenous increase in the number of events with precipitation above 20mm in Goričko and Kozjansko was observed. However, the number of these events is decreasing in the Slovenian coastal region, the Alps and in the Dinaric region. Elsewhere in the country, no statistically typical changes have been observed. However, regional differences may be the result of different precipitation regimes.

Homogenous growth in the number of days with storms can be observed in Prekmurje, Goričko, Slovenske Konjice, and in Kozjansko, while homogenous regions with a falling number of storms are Dolenjska, Bela krajina and Primorska. Elsewhere in Slovenia, no typical pattern in the changing frequency of storms has been observed, except in the mountainous regions, where an increase has been observed. Nevertheless, even these areas are not homogenous. Homogenous regions with a growing number of hail events have been observed in Goričko, in the Notranjska region in the belt south of Ljubljana, in part of Karavanke, and in a very narrow area on Kozjak Mountain. The frequency of hailstorms is less severe in the southern part of the Julian Alps, in the wider Štajerska and Prekmurje regions, and in Bela krajina and its surroundings. Very intense precipitation lasting from a few hours to a day or two appear locally and can cause landslides and local floods (torrential floods and landslides in Gorenjska and Štarjerska regions were recorded in September 2007). The year 2008 was marked particularly by intense summer storms. In light of expected global climate changes, such events will most likely become more frequent in Slovenia in the future.


Data for Slovenia

Objectives summarized by: White Paper - Adapting to climate change: Towards a European framework for action (April 2009) and Green Paper – Adapting to climate change in Europe – options for EU action (June 2007).
Source database or source: Meteorological Data Archive, Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia, Estimation of global trends and conditions in Europe taken from the World Meteorological Organisation.
Data administrator: Meteorological Office, Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia
Data acquisition date for this indicator: 2 March 2009
Methodology and frequency of data collection for the indicator: The data is presented for the period of 1961-2008.
Data processing methodology:
Information concerning data quality:
- Advantages and disadvantages of the indicator: The data has been collected in accordance with the recommendations of the World Meteorological Organisation.
- Relevance, accuracy, robustness, uncertainty: The accuracy of measurements and the quality of data comply with the recommendations of the World Meteorological Organisation.
Reliability of the indicator (archive data):/
Uncertainly of the indicator (scenarios/projections):no projections/scenarios available
Overall estimate(1 = no major comments, 3 = data to be considered with reservation):
Relevance: 1
Accuracy:1
Completeness over time:1
Completeness over space: 1

Information on measuring stations:
Kredarica is representative of the conditions in mountainous regions, and Rateče is a measuring station where the conditions in the area surrounding the measuring point have remained unchanged for decades; therefore, this measuring station is representative of valley areas in northern Slovenia. Murska Sobota describes the climate situation in the flatlands stretching across the northeastern part of Slovenia, where the continental climate conditions are most evident in the entire country. Novo mesto is a typical representative of the climate conditions prevailing in the Dolenjska region. The penultimate line in the Table shows data for Ljubljana. The area surrounding the measuring point in Ljubljana has undergone significant changes during recent decades; the data is nevertheless representative for the climate conditions in the city that is both the capital and the largest city in Slovenia. Yet, it should be emphasised that this data is suitable neither for the illustration of changes in the climate conditions within a wider area nor for the assessment of changes arising directly from global climate changes. The last line shows data collected from the airport based in the Slovenian Primorje; it only contains data for the period during which the measurements have been conducted at the current location.


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