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Slovenia belongs in the group of EU countries, which are more polluted with PM10. The average exposure to particulate matters (PM10) is above limit value proposed by WHO (20 µg PM10/m3). Very young children, including unborn babies and elderly are particularly sensitive to air pollutants. Analyses show that in Slovenia 2/5 of children are exposed to negative consequences because of the elevated PM10 concentrations. Most children in European cities where PM10 is monitored are exposed PM10 levels that do not exceed 30 micro g/m3, but in Slovenia 40 % of children are exposed to concentrations between 30-40 µg /m3. Recent data suggest that in Slovenia, 15 % of hospitalized children are due to respiratory diseases.


The indicator shows the exposure of children to polluted air due to particulate matter PM10 in the period 2002–2007. A sample group of children aged between 0 and 15 years was examined in the study. Exposure to PM10 is shown in the indicator for various groups of PM10 concentration levels, from 0–30 µg/m3, 30–40 µg/m3, 40–50 µg/m3 and <50 µg/m3. The proportion of children exposed to individual groups of PM10 concentration levels was calculated for Ljubljana, Maribor, Celje, Murska Sobota, Nova Gorica, Trbovlje and Zagorje ob Savi. In the calculation of the proportion of children in individual groups of PM10 concentration levels, the total number of children in a city/town is taken into consideration. The classification of a measurement site by PM10 total concentration level was done on the basis of measurement results reflecting the annual PM10 concentration level in outdoor air per individual measurement site. PM10 measurements are performed by the Environment Agency of the Republic of Slovenia as part of regular outdoor air quality monitoring.

The proportion of children in the 0–15 age group who were admitted to hospital due to a diagnosed respiratory disease is shown for the period 2002–2007. The proportion for a city/town was calculated as the ratio between the number of children who were admitted to hospital due to a diagnosed respiratory disease and the total number of children in this city/town in a given year.

Concentration of PM10 is a good indicator of exposure to dust particles in the outdoor air. A number of epidemiological studies carried out in Europe and elsewhere in the world show a relationship between exposure to PM10 and the health of children as a particularly vulnerable social group (Cohen et al., 2004).


Charts

Figure ZD03-1: Exposure of children (0-15 years old) to outdoor PM10 pollution, Slovenia, 2002 - 2011 (WHO air quality guideline level is 20 miro g/m3, the EU limit value is 40 µg/m3 of PM10)
Sources: 

IVZ RS, 2012; ARSO, 2012.

Show data
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
0-30 µg/m3 % 0 0 0 0 0 4 67 64 61.2 48
30-40 µg/m3 % 7 7 24 63 76 92 29 36 38.8 52
40-50 µg/m3 % 93 56 76 30 24 4 4 0 0 0
> 50 µg/m3 % 0 37 0 7 0 0 0 0 0 0
Figure ZD03-2: Percentage of children (from 0 to 14 years old) hospitalized due to respiratory diseases, Slovenia, 2001 - 2011
Sources: 

IVZ RS, 2012; SURS, 2012.

Show data
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Ljubljana - children admitted to hospital No. 786 706 805 961 1020 973 1017 1333 1516 1378
Maribor - children admitted to hospital No. 544 546 526 496 433 426 441 669 722 572
Celje - children admitted to hospital No. 255 196 223 249 237 229 293 512 490 409
Murska Sobota - children admitted to hospital No. 78 73 96 81 77 104 89 419 376 377
Nova Gorica - children admitted to hospital No. 95 154 137 119 149 131 144 308 338 381
Trbovlje - children admitted to hospital No. 97 91 79 88 77 90 88 88 70 73
Zagorje ob Savi - children admitted to hospital No. 142 59 67 45 62 80 76 80 97 74
Ljubljana - children in the municipality (1.7.) No. 46046 45044 44506 44416 44330 44498 37610 46482 47814 48909
Maribor - children in the municipality (1.7.) No. 18487 18017 17660 17530 17338 17722 13571 17476 17641 17821
Celje - children in the municipality (1.7.) No. 8961 8681 8624 8538 8497 8534 6803 8527 8628 8692
Murska Sobota - children in the municipality (1.7.) No. 8443 8204 8039 7908 7787 7685 2607 7514 7444 7357
Nova Gorica - children in the municipality (1.7.) No. 7925 7709 7600 7582 7500 7515 4472 7630 7757 7831
Trbovlje - children in the municipality (1.7.) No. 2356 2245 2167 2107 2068 2057 2188 2022 2035 1997
Zagorje ob Savi - children in the municipality (1.7.) No. 2664 2605 2501 2476 2447 2443 2628 2448 2451 2461
Ljubljana % 1.70698866351 1.56735636267 1.80874488833 2.16363472622 2.30092488157 2.18661512877 2.7 2.8677767738 3.17061948383 2.81747735591
Maribor % 2.94260831936 3.03047122162 2.97848244621 2.82943525385 2.49740454493 2.40379189708 3.2 3.82810711833 4.09273850689 3.20969642557
Celje % 2.84566454637 2.25780440041 2.58580705009 2.91637385805 2.78921972461 2.68338411062 4.3 6.00445643251 5.67918405192 4.70547630005
Murska Sobota % 0.923842236172 0.889809848854 1.1941783804 1.02427921093 0.988827533068 1.35328562134 3.4 5.57625765238 5.05104782375 5.12437134702
Nova Gorica % 1.19873817035 1.99766506681 1.80263157895 1.56950672646 1.98666666667 1.74318030605 3.2 4.03669724771 4.35735464742 4.86527901928
Trbovlje % 4.11714770798 4.05345211581 3.64559298569 4.17655434267 3.72340425532 4.37530384054 4 4.35212660732 3.4398034398 3.65548322484
Zagorje ob Savi % 5.33033033033 2.26487523992 2.67892842863 1.81744749596 2.53371475276 3.27466230045 2.9 3.26797385621 3.95756833945 3.00690776107
Figure ZD03-3: Exposure of population to PM10 pollution in European cities, 2010 (WHO air quality guideline level is 20 µg /m3, the European Union limit value is 40 µg /m3 of PM10)
Sources: 

EUROSTAT, 2013.

Show data
Urban population exposure to air pollution by particulate matter 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
EU-27 µg/m3 33 28 29 28 26 27 30 27 28 30
Belgium µg/m3 41 35 34 33 34 33 36 31 30 31
Bulgaria µg/m3 0 0 0 20 29 0 59 52 49 53
Czech Republic µg/m3 35 26 25 30 32 39 41 34 34 35
Denmark µg/m3 0 0 0 0 0 24 25 20 24 27
Germany µg/m3 24 21 27 27 25 27 29 24 24 26
Estonia µg/m3 0 0 0 0 18 21 19 18 21 23
Ireland µg/m3 0 0 16 0 20 20 19 15 15 17
Greece µg/m3 0 0 0 0 35 35 34 33 29 26
Spain µg/m3 33 47 39 39 32 32 34 33 34 34
France µg/m3 0 0 0 0 21 21 23 21 20 21
Italy µg/m3 0 0 0 47 31 31 34 36 39 40
Latvia µg/m3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Lithuania µg/m3 0 0 29 0 0 0 0 23 23 20
Hungary µg/m3 0 0 0 0 0 0 34 24 39 37
Netherlands µg/m3 37 37 36 31 30 32 34 30 30 32
Austria µg/m3 0 0 0 26 33 26 31 24 29 30
Poland µg/m3 47 53 36 37 36 40 41 32 36 42
Portugal µg/m3 0 0 37 31 33 29 29 33 32 31
Romania µg/m3 0 0 0 0 0 0 50 54 49 53
Slovenia µg/m3 0 0 0 0 0 31 44 41 37 33
Slovakia µg/m3 0 0 36 29 27 29 30 31 34 31
Finland µg/m3 0 0 16 15 16 16 16 14 15 16
Sweden µg/m3 0 14 14 17 18 20 20 18 19 20
United Kingdom µg/m3 30 26 25 24 24 24 26 23 23 25
Norway µg/m3 0 0 0 0 0 0 20 17 22 22
Urban population exposure to air pollution by particulate matter 2007 2008 2009 2010
EU-27 µg/m3 28 26 26 26
Belgium µg/m3 26 26 29 27
Bulgaria µg/m3 54 61 56 48
Czech Republic µg/m3 27 25 26 29
Denmark µg/m3 23 21 17 12
Germany µg/m3 23 21 22 23
Estonia µg/m3 19 11 11 13
Ireland µg/m3 15 14 14 16
Greece µg/m3 30 0 0 0
Spain µg/m3 31 27 26 24
France µg/m3 27 24 26 25
Italy µg/m3 36 34 32 29
Latvia µg/m3 0 24 20 24
Lithuania µg/m3 21 19 23 27
Hungary µg/m3 32 29 30 31
Netherlands µg/m3 31 27 26 25
Austria µg/m3 23 22 24 26
Poland µg/m3 32 31 35 39
Portugal µg/m3 30 24 25 24
Romania µg/m3 46 39 30 35
Slovenia µg/m3 32 29 28 28
Slovakia µg/m3 29 27 25 29
Finland µg/m3 16 14 13 13
Sweden µg/m3 17 18 15 14
United Kingdom µg/m3 24 21 19 18
Norway µg/m3 20 19 19 20
Figure ZD03-4: Percentage of children exposed to PM10 pollution, cities in selected European countries, 2010 (WHO air quality guideline level is 20 µg /m3, the European Union limit value is 40 µg /m3 of PM10)
Sources: 

ENHIS, 2011.

Show data
Iceland Finland Ireland Estonia Sweden Denmark Norway United Kingdom Switzerland Germany
PM10 No. of exposed children 113730 690541 586145 392306 1028892 203500
PM10 No. of exposed children 100482 478055 501664 759316 10402200 364528 4354978
PM10 No. of exposed children 2368978 312277 15822665
PM10 No. of exposed children
PM10 No. of exposed children
PM10 No. of exposed children
PM10 > 60 µg/m3 No. of exposed children
population covered No. of exposed children 113730 690541 586145 492788 1506947 501664 759316 12974678 676805 20177643
PM10 % of exposed children 100 100 100 79.6 68.3 0 0 1.6 0 0
PM10 % of exposed children 0 0 0 20.4 31.7 100 100 80.2 53.9 21.6
PM10 % of exposed children 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 18.3 46.1 78.4
PM10 % of exposed children 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
PM10 % of exposed children 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
PM10 % of exposed children 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
PM10 > 60 µg/m3 % of exposed children 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
annual mean PM10 µg/m3 9.7 13.3 13.5 12.6 14.8 16.7 19 19.2 20 22.4
Belarus Portugal Latvia Slovenia Lithuania Luxembourg Austria Netherlands Hungary Belgium
PM10 No. of exposed children
PM10 No. of exposed children 372000 100847
PM10 No. of exposed children 2246600 1384079 735241 267563 1039306 83226 2165313 2326067 1900107 2016016
PM10 No. of exposed children 127587 229344
PM10 No. of exposed children
PM10 No. of exposed children
PM10 > 60 µg/m3 No. of exposed children
population covered No. of exposed children 2618600 1484926 735241 267563 1039306 83226 2165313 2326067 2027694 2245360
PM10 % of exposed children 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
PM10 % of exposed children 14.2 6.8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
PM10 % of exposed children 85.8 93.2 100 100 100 100 100 100 93.7 89.8
PM10 % of exposed children 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6.3 10.2
PM10 % of exposed children 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
PM10 % of exposed children 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
PM10 > 60 µg/m3 % of exposed children 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
annual mean PM10 µg/m3 20.6 24.8 20.2 29.4 23 23.3 23.6 25.5 29.8 29
Slovakia Czech Republic France Spain Romania Russia Italy Albania Poland Serbia
PM10 No. of exposed children
PM10 No. of exposed children 1008276 818439 761070 107773
PM10 No. of exposed children 567747 2125088 14677679 6456773 66293 2186685 2153515
PM10 No. of exposed children 85268 459356 4933105 2479108 150267 10579300 4428274 365376.2 5233822
PM10 No. of exposed children 351385.9 2798475 2153232 1123594.3
PM10 No. of exposed children 983648
PM10 > 60 µg/m3 No. of exposed children
population covered No. of exposed children 653015 2584444 20619060 10105705.9 216560 10579300 10174504 365376.2 10631990 1123594.3
PM10 % of exposed children 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
PM10 % of exposed children 0 0 4.9 8.1 0 0 7.5 0 1 0
PM10 % of exposed children 86.9 82.2 71.2 63.9 30.6 0 21.5 0 20.3 0
PM10 % of exposed children 13.1 17.8 23.9 24.5 69.4 100 43.5 100 49.2 0
PM10 % of exposed children 0 0 0 3.5 0 0 27.5 0 20.3 100
PM10 % of exposed children 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9.3 0
PM10 > 60 µg/m3 % of exposed children 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
annual mean PM10 µg/m3 24.8 25.8 26.2 26.3 30.3 33.3 32.5 38.5 35 40.1
Bulgaria Turkey Bosnia and Herzegovina - Europe
PM10 No. of exposed children 3015114
PM10 No. of exposed children 20129628
PM10 No. of exposed children 60901218
PM10 No. of exposed children 347730 29418538
PM10 No. of exposed children 1650106 8076793.2
PM10 No. of exposed children 1408304 13546193 15938145
PM10 > 60 µg/m3 No. of exposed children 341464 6596424 374558.7 7312446.6
population covered No. of exposed children 2097498 21792723 374558.7 144791882.8
PM10 % of exposed children 0 0 0 2.1
PM10 % of exposed children 0 0 0 13.9
PM10 % of exposed children 0 0 0 42.1
PM10 % of exposed children 16.6 0 0 20.3
PM10 % of exposed children 0 7.6 0 5.6
PM10 % of exposed children 67.1 62.2 0 11
PM10 > 60 µg/m3 % of exposed children 16.3 30.3 100 5.1
annual mean PM10 µg/m3 52.9 58.1 60.9

Goals

Child health protection and, therefore, protection of the respiratory system is a priority of the EU health policies. Children are highlighted as a particularly vulnerable social group. According to the WHO recommendations, it would be necessary to reduce health risks by ensuring the following annual average concentrations: for PM2.5 10 µg/m3 and for PM10 20 µg/m3 (Hong et al., 2002).


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