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The level of energy intensity in Slovenia is high and stopped declining in the period 2008–2011. A decline has been observed again over the past three years, with a particularly encouraging reduction in 2014. The long term trend of approaching the average of the EU-28 shows that it is happening too slowly. 


This indicator presents total energy intensity (TEI), expressed as the ratio between total energy consumption and gross domestic product for a particular calendar year. Energy consumption per unit of BDP is one of the key indicators of sustainable development. It shows the effectiveness of decoupling between energy consumption and economic growth over time. The indicator decreases when GDP grows at a higher rate than energy consumption and when environmental pressures are directly proportional to energy consumption.

Energy intensity decreases along with the improvement of energy efficiency (Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, 2009). It enables us to assess energy consumption and energy efficiency of a country's economy. Energy intensity is expressed in toe/million Euros 2005 (energy consumption is measured in tonnes of oil equivalent, while gross domestic product is converted to 2005 Constant Prices, in Euros, in order to enable direct comparability among EU countries).

Total energy consumption is the entire consumption of energy in various forms: solid, liquid and gaseous fuels, nuclear energy, renewable energy sources and export/import of electricity (net electricity import).

 


Charts

Figure EN11-1: Trends in total energy consumption, gross domestic product and total energy intensity, 1995-2014
Sources: 

The jožef Stefan Institute, Statistical Office of the RS, EUROSTAT, 2015

Show data
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
Total primary energy supply ktoe 6060 6362 6572 6405 6347 6394 6665 6730 6823 7030
GDP constant prices of the previous year, reference year 2005 mio EUR 19878 20577 21629 22340 23518 24496 25218 26186 26930 28102
Total energy intensity - Slovenia toe/mio EUR 2005 305 309 304 287 270 261 264 257 253 250
Total energy intensity - EU28 toe/mio EUR 2005 190 193 187 182 176 170 171 168 169 167
Total primary energy supply Index (1995 = 100) 100 105 108 106 105 106 110 111 113 116
GDP constant prices of the previous year, reference year 2000 Index (1995 = 100) 100 104 109 112 118 123 127 132 135 141
Total energy intensity - Slovenia Index (1995 = 100) 100 101 100 94 89 86 87 84 83 82
Total energy intensity - EU28 Index (1995 = 100) 100 102 98 96 92 90 90 88 89 88
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Total primary energy supply ktoe 7207 7213 7243 7650 7082 7218 7279 7015 6801 6593
GDP constant prices of the previous year, reference year 2005 mio EUR 29227 30880 33023 34113 31453 31842 32049 31178 30848 31789
Total energy intensity - Slovenia toe/mio EUR 2005 247 234 219 224 225 227 227 225 220 207
Total energy intensity - EU28 toe/mio EUR 2005 164 159 152 151 149 152 144 143 142
Total primary energy supply Index (1995 = 100) 119 119 120 126 117 119 120 116 112 109
GDP constant prices of the previous year, reference year 2000 Index (1995 = 100) 147 155 166 172 158 160 161 157 155 160
Total energy intensity - Slovenia Index (1995 = 100) 81 77 72 74 74 74 74 74 72 68
Total energy intensity - EU28 Index (1995 = 100) 86 84 80 79 78 80 76 75 74
Figure EN11-2: Comparison of the energy intensity (TPES/GDP in PPS), EU-28, 2013
Sources: 

Eurostat, The Jožef Stefan Institute, 2015

Show data
EU-28 EU-15 EU-10 - Estonia Finland Bulgaria Czech Republic Belgium Slovakia
Total energy intensity 2013 toe/PPS 128 124 154 268 231 226 205 182 174
SLOVENIA Sweden Poland Hungary Netherlands France Romania Latvia Lithuania Cyprus
Total energy intensity 2013 toe/PPS 169 165 164 155 149 146 144 140 140 133
Luxembourg Croatia Germany Austria Greece Malta Portugal Spain United Kingdom Italy
Total energy intensity 2013 toe/PPS 132 131 127 125 124 124 115 115 114 113
Denmark Ireland
Total energy intensity 2013 toe/PPS 108 93
Figure EN11-3: Comparison of total energy intensity, 2000-2013
Sources: 

EUROSTAT, The Jožef Stefan Institute, 2015

Show data
EU-28 EU-15 EU-10 - Austria Netherlands Italy Luxembourg Portugal France
TEI change 2000-2013 (%) % -17 -16 -29 -3 -5 -8 -11 -11 -12
TEI 2000 toe/mio EUR 2005 170 153 424 128 157 127 144 171 162
TEI 2013 toe/mio EUR 2005 142 129 299 124 149 117 128 151 143
Finland Denmark Greece SLOVENIA Malta Germany Belgium Estonia Croatia Spain
TEI change 2000-2013 (%) % -13 -15 -15 -16 -17 -18 -18 -18 -18 -19
TEI 2000 toe/mio EUR 2005 235 101 179 268 173 159 212 627 269 160
TEI 2013 toe/mio EUR 2005 206 87 151 226 144 131 173 513 219 129
Sweden Cyprus Czech Republic Hungary Ireland United Kingdom Latvia Poland Bulgaria Slovakia
TEI change 2000-2013 (%) % -23 -26 -26 -27 -27 -28 -30 -30 -41 -44
TEI 2000 toe/mio EUR 2005 187 208 480 350 112 143 443 422 1040 604
TEI 2013 toe/mio EUR 2005 144 154 354 257 82 103 311 295 611 337
Romania Lithuania
TEI change 2000-2013 (%) % -45 -46
TEI 2000 toe/mio EUR 2005 606 490
TEI 2013 toe/mio EUR 2005 335 266
Figure EN11-4: Comparison of the energy consumption per capita (TPES/capita) between EU-28 countries for 2013
Show data
EU-28 EU-15 EU-10 - Luxembourg Finland Sweden Belgium Estonia Netherlands
Total energy consuomption per capita 2013 toe/capita 3 6 1 8 6 5 5 5 5
Czech Republic Austria France Germany SLOVENIA Denmark Slovakia United Kingdom Ireland Italy
Total energy consuomption per capita 2013 toe/capita 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3
Poland Spain Cyprus Bulgaria Hungary Lithuania Greece Latvia Portugal Malta
Total energy consuomption per capita 2013 toe/capita 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Croatia Romania
Total energy consuomption per capita 2013 toe/capita 2 2

Goals

  • Promotion of energy saving and energy efficiency, with an emphasis on the public sector, are stated among the goals in Slovenia's Development Strategy from 2005;
  • Improvement of energy efficiency is stated as one of the goals in the Resolution on the National Energy Programme from 2004;
  • Quantitative goals for the improvement of energy efficiency are set by the Directive on Energy End-use Efficiency and Energy Services. In the period 2008–2018, Member States shall aim to achieve an energy savings target of 9% in relation to final energy consumption in the base year of 2008.
  • Based on the Energy Efficiency Directive, Slovenia set the following 2020 energy consumption goals: 5,188 ktoe for final energy consumption and 7,125 ktoe for energy supply.

 


In 2014, Slovenia required 207 toe of primary energy per million EUR of GDP (2005 Constant Prices), which was a 5.9% decrease from the previous year. After 1997, an increase in energy intensity was recorded in 2001 (+1.3%) and in the period 2008–2011 (2.2%, 0.4%, 0.7 % and 0.2%). The largest decrease occurred in the second half of the 1990s, while after 2000, the decrease rate was more moderate. A more notable decrease in intensity was recorded again in 2006 and 2007, while during the economic crisis (2008–2011) the trend was not very pronounced. In recent years, the intensity has been decreasing again, most notably in 2014. In the period 2008–2014, the average annual decrease in energy intensity was 1.3%. In the period 2008–2102, the decrease in energy intensity came to a halt, which represented a temporary deviation from the desired trend, i.e. approaching the EU-28 average. In 2013 and especially in 2014, however, Slovenia caught up with the EU-28. Trends in energy intensity are affected by trends in intensity of final energy consumption (See indicator EN15 Final energy consumption intensity) and trends in the efficiency of systems of production, transport and distribution of electricity and heat (see indicator EN31 Efficiency of systems of production, transport and distribution of electricity and heat).

In 2013, the EU-28 required 142 toe of primary energy per million EUR of GDP (2005 Constant Prices), which was a 1.3% decrease from the previous year. Therefore, Slovenia required approximately 59%[1] more energy to achieve the result that equals the average of the EU-28. In the period 1995–2013, energy intensity in the EU-28 decreased at an average rate of 1.6% annually, while in the period 2005–2013, the average annual rate was 1.8%. In Slovenia, energy intensity in the period 1995–2013 decreased at an average annual rate of 1.8%, while in the period 2005–2012, the average annual rate of decrease was 1.5%.

While energy intensity of the Slovenian economy in the period 1995–2013 approached that of the EU-28, it did so only by 5 percentage points. In the period 2007–2011, the energy intensity of the Slovenian economy moved away from that of the EU-28, while in 2012 the reverse trend was observed again.

The comparison of energy intensity calculated from GDP and expressed in constant purchasing power units shows that the intensity of the Slovenian economy in 2013 exceeded that of the EU-28 by 32%. Differences among the Member States are substantial as well. The least energy intensive Member State, Ireland, consumes 1.89- times less energy for the same GDP in standard purchasing power units as the most energy intensive Member State, Estonia. Slovenia is among the more energy-wasteful Member States.

Slovenia's high energy intensity can be attributed to a relatively low GDP per capita with regard to the EU average, a high share of industry in the GDP and the impact of transit transport. As regards energy consumption per capita, Slovenia is close to the EU-28 average (in 2013, consumption in Slovenia was 1.5% higher). Similar energy consumption can be seen for example in Denmark, which, however, has a considerably higher GDP in standard purchasing power units and, consequently, a lower energy intensity.

Primary energy consumption per capita in Slovenia is 3.3 toe, which equals the EU-28 average. The EU-15 average is as much as 6.3 toe per capita.

 


[1] For the comparison between energy intensity in the EU-28 and Slovenia, the value for Slovenia (226 toe) was calculated from the EUROSTAT data, which differs slightly from the value (220 toe/million [2005] EUR) calculated from the data provided by the Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia.

 

 



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