KAZALCI OKOLJA

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In 2014, the consumption of final energy was 4% lower compared to the previous year and 12.5% lower compared to its consumption in 2008, when its highest value was recorded within the period 1992–2014. Most energy is used in transport, followed by industry, households and other use. Lower energy consumption in 2014 compared to 2008 is primarily a consequence of the economic crisis, but the impact of energy efficiency improvement is important as well. With 4.607 ktoe, energy consumption in 2014 was 10 % below the target for 2020.


This indicator presents the consumption of final energy defined as the sum of energy consumption of all final consumption sectors. These sectors include manufacturing and construction, transport and other uses (households, services and agriculture fall under this category). Final energy consumption is expressed in energy units (ktoe – one thousand tonnes of oil equivalent). Calorific values of individual fuels are used for conversion from mass units. The indicator may be presented in relative (the relative contribution of a specific sector to total final energy consumption) or absolute terms. For presentation in absolute units, ktoe is used.

Analysis of trends in final energy consumption by sector enables the assessment of progress in the field of efficient energy use and reduction of energy consumption policies. The use of final energy obtained from fossil fuels directly affects the emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases. Reduction of final energy consumption is important from the perspective of providing reliable energy supply and competitiveness of economy, as well as from the perspective of reducing environmental impacts through the reduction of emissions of air pollutants, greenhouse gases and others.

 


Charts

Figure EN10-1: Final energy consumption by sector, Slovenia, 1992-2014
Sources: 

Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, 2015; Jožef Stefan Institute, 2015, Eurostat, 2015.

Show data
1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
Manufacturing and construction ktoe 1142.5 1112.1 1223.2 1179.3 1189.4 1223.6 1203.9 1206.7 1395.5 1277
Transport ktoe 885 1067.3 1189.5 1324.7 1493.7 1561.7 1377.8 1312 1231.1 1283.2
Households ktoe 1020.3 1113.6 1104.8 1181.5 1044.6 1069.8 1035.4 1101.8 1124.4 1130.3
Other use ktoe 230.9 267.8 241.7 257 643.5 638.6 700.5 734.1 675.9 859.7
Final energy consumption - Slovenia ktoe 3278.7 3560.8 3759.2 3942.5 4371.3 4493.7 4317.5 4354.5 4426.9 4550.2
Final energy consumption - EU-28 ktoe 1061285.6 1064682 1059614.8 1078848.6 1126239.9 1115104.2 1123997.9 1123484.3 1130610.9 1154039.9
Final energy consumption - EU-15 ktoe 882500.6 887929 886316.1 902700.1 941412.2 933983.6 952644.8 960342.2 970180.4 990042.2
Final energy consumption - EU-10 ktoe 136485.5 136652.1 132404.5 133264.8 138733.8 136374.9 129413.5 125974.1 123181.7 126167
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Manufacturing and construction ktoe 1238.2 1514.6 1536.1 1647 1698.1 1607.9 1484.8 1219.7 1271.1 1234.1
Transport ktoe 1311.6 1326.6 1376.9 1469 1553.3 1760.2 2070.9 1794.2 1790.2 1918.7
Households ktoe 1163.2 1249.5 1232.1 1185.7 1158.1 1048.1 1114.9 1209.7 1251.7 1208.8
Other use ktoe 842.3 596.2 637.8 568.4 532.4 466.1 594.9 583.8 608.6 616.5
Final energy consumption - Slovenia ktoe 4555.2 4686.9 4783 4870.2 4941.9 4882.3 5265.5 4807.4 4921.5 4978.2
Final energy consumption - EU-28 ktoe 1141229 1171505 1185276.6 1186435.2 1187219.3 1167751.1 1173278.4 1106838.2 1157163.7 1104174.6
Final energy consumption - EU-15 ktoe 978022.2 1002332.1 1012576 1011791.2 1008894.7 990563.8 994745.4 937583.3 980885.4 931305.6
Final energy consumption - EU-10 ktoe 125207.6 129099.8 131839.2 133399.9 136480 136204.7 137069.7 132015.9 138496 134643.3
2012 2013 2014
Manufacturing and construction ktoe 1203.3 1194.5 1228.2
Transport ktoe 1953 1861.6 1818.8
Households ktoe 1180.5 1157.1 1040.3
Other use ktoe 556.8 579.9 519.6
Final energy consumption - Slovenia ktoe 4893.7 4793 4606.9
Final energy consumption - EU-28 ktoe 1102391.3 1103813.3
Final energy consumption - EU-15 ktoe 932246.7 935939.2
Final energy consumption - EU-10 ktoe 132194.8 131534.2
Figure EN10-2: Sector share in final energy consumption, Slovenia, 1992, 2000, 2005 and 2014
Sources: 

Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, 2015; Jožef Stefan Institute, 2015.

Show data
1992 2000 2005 2013 2014
Final energy consumption ktoe 3278.7 4426.9 4870.2 4796.8 4606.9
Manufacturing and construction ktoe 1142.5 1395.5 1647 1194.5 1228.2
Transport ktoe 885 1231.1 1469 1833.9 1818.8
Households ktoe 1020.3 1124.4 1185.7 1211.9 1040.3
Other use ktoe 230.9 675.9 568.4 556.5 519.6
Final energy consumption % 100 100 100 100 100
Manufacturing and construction % 34.8 31.5 33.8 24.9 26.7
Transport % 27 27.8 30.2 38.2 39.5
Households % 31.1 25.4 24.3 25.3 22.6
Other use % 7 15.3 11.7 11.6 11.3
Figure EN10-3: Average annual growth rate of final energy consumption by sector, Slovenia, 1992-2014, 2000-2014, 2012-2013 in 2013-2014
Sources: 

Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, 2015; Jožef Stefan Institute, 2015.

Show data
Other use Households Transport Manufacturing and construction
1992-2014 % 3.8 0.1 3.3 0.3
2000-2014 % -1.9 -0.6 2.8 -0.9
2012-2013 % 2.6 -1.3 -6.2 -0.7
2013-2014 % -6.6 -14.2 -0.8 2.8
Figure EN10-4: Average annual growth rate of final energy consumption, EU-28, EU-15, EU-10 and Slovenia, 1992-2013, 2000-2013, 2011-2012 and 2012-2013
Sources: 

Eurostat, 2015.

Show data
1992-2013 2000-2013 2011-2012 2012-2013
EU-28 % 0.2 -0.2 -0.2 0.1
EU-15 % 0.2 -0.6 -6.2 2.9
EU-10 % -0.2 0.5 -1.8 -0.5
Slovenia % 1.8 0.6 -1.9 -2.7
Figure EN10-5: Structure of final energy consumption by sector, EU-28, EU-15, EU-10 and Slovenia, 1992 and 2013
Sources: 

Eurostat, 2015.

Show data
EU-15 1992 EU-10 1992 SI 1992 EU-15 2000 EU-10 2000 SI 2000 EU-15 2013 EU-10 2013 SI 2013
Industry % 28.7 38.9 33.9 28.5 32.9 31.9 24.8 26 24.9
Transport % 30.6 14.2 26.5 32.4 19.4 28.2 32.4 26.4 38.9
Households % 26.1 29.6 29.7 25.3 29.7 25.3 26.2 29.6 24.1
Other use % 14.6 17.2 9.9 13.8 18.1 14.5 16.5 18 12.1
Industry ktoe 253603.2 53142.6 1152.9 276765.9 40516.2 1423.8 232392.4 34230.5 1196.4
Transport ktoe 269630.7 19417.9 901.3 314330.7 23840.2 1259 303687.2 34767.5 1865.4
Households ktoe 230249.9 40424.5 1009.9 245593.4 36534.5 1127 245276.5 38913.4 1156.6
Other use ktoe 129016.4 23500.3 337 133490.1 22290.6 647.5 154583.3 23623.2 579.9
Final energy consumption ktoe 882500.2 136485.3 3401.1 970180.1 123181.5 4457.3 935939.4 131534.6 4798.3
Figure EN10-6: Final energy consumption per capita, EU-28, 2013
Sources: 

Eurostat, 2015

Show data
EU-28 EU-15 EU-10 - Luxembourg Finland Austria Sweden Belgium Netherlands
2000 toe/capita 2.3 2.6 1.7 8.1 4.7 3 3.9 3.7 3.2
2001 toe/capita 2.4 2.6 1.7 8.4 4.8 3.1 3.9 3.7 3.2
2002 toe/capita 2.4 2.6 1.7 8.4 4.9 3.1 3.8 3.5 3.2
2003 toe/capita 2.4 2.6 1.7 8.8 5 3.3 3.8 3.7 3.2
2004 toe/capita 2.4 2.6 1.8 9.6 5 3.3 3.8 3.7 3.3
2005 toe/capita 2.4 2.6 1.8 9.7 4.8 3.4 3.7 3.5 3.2
2006 toe/capita 2.4 2.6 1.8 9.4 5.1 3.4 3.7 3.5 3.1
2007 toe/capita 2.4 2.5 1.8 9.1 5 3.3 3.7 3.3 3.2
2008 toe/capita 2.4 2.5 1.9 9.1 4.9 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.3
2009 toe/capita 2.2 2.4 1.8 8.3 4.5 3.2 3.4 3.2 3.1
2010 toe/capita 2.3 2.5 1.9 8.6 4.9 3.4 3.6 3.5 3.3
2011 toe/capita 2.2 2.3 1.8 8.4 4.6 3.3 3.4 3.3 3
2012 toe/capita 2.2 2.3 1.8 8 4.7 3.3 3.4 3 3.1
2013 toe/capita 2.2 2.3 1.8 7.7 4.5 3.3 3.3 3.1 3
Germany (until 1990 former territory of the FRG) Denmark Ireland Slovenia France Czech Republic Estonia United Kingdom Slovakia Italy
2000 toe/capita 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.2 2.6 2.4 1.7 2.6 2 2.2
2001 toe/capita 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.3 2.6 2.5 1.9 2.6 2.1 2.2
2002 toe/capita 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.3 2.6 2.4 1.9 2.5 2.2 2.2
2003 toe/capita 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.4 2.6 2.5 2 2.5 2.1 2.3
2004 toe/capita 2.7 2.8 3 2.4 2.6 2.6 2.1 2.6 2.1 2.3
2005 toe/capita 2.6 2.9 3.1 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.1 2.5 2.2 2.3
2006 toe/capita 2.7 2.9 3.1 2.5 2.5 2.6 2.1 2.5 2.1 2.3
2007 toe/capita 2.6 2.9 3.1 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.3 2.4 2.1 2.2
2008 toe/capita 2.6 2.8 3 2.6 2.4 2.5 2.3 2.4 2.1 2.2
2009 toe/capita 2.5 2.7 2.6 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.1 2.2 2 2
2010 toe/capita 2.7 2.8 2.6 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.2 2.3 2.1 2.1
2011 toe/capita 2.6 2.7 2.4 2.4 2.2 2.3 2.1 2.1 2 2.1
2012 toe/capita 2.6 2.6 2.3 2.4 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.1 1.9 2.1
2013 toe/capita 2.6 2.5 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.1 2 2
Latvia Cyprus Spain Poland Lithuania Hungary Portugal Greece Bulgaria Malta
2000 toe/capita 1.4 2.4 2 1.4 1.1 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.1 1.2
2001 toe/capita 1.5 2.4 2.1 1.5 1.1 1.7 1.8 1.8 1.1 1
2002 toe/capita 1.6 2.4 2.1 1.4 1.2 1.7 1.8 1.8 1.2 0.9
2003 toe/capita 1.7 2.6 2.2 1.5 1.2 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.3 1
2004 toe/capita 1.7 2.5 2.2 1.5 1.3 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.3 1.1
2005 toe/capita 1.8 2.5 2.3 1.5 1.4 1.8 1.8 1.9 1.3 0.9
2006 toe/capita 1.9 2.5 2.2 1.6 1.5 1.8 1.8 2 1.4 0.9
2007 toe/capita 2 2.5 2.2 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.8 2 1.4 1
2008 toe/capita 1.9 2.5 2.1 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.9 1.3 1.2
2009 toe/capita 1.9 2.4 1.9 1.6 1.4 1.6 1.7 1.9 1.2 1.1
2010 toe/capita 1.9 2.4 1.9 1.7 1.5 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.2 1.2
2011 toe/capita 1.9 2.3 1.9 1.7 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.3 1.2
2012 toe/capita 2 2 1.8 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.3 1.2
2013 toe/capita 1.9 1.9 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.2 1.2
Romania
2000 toe/capita 1
2001 toe/capita 1
2002 toe/capita 1.1
2003 toe/capita 1.1
2004 toe/capita 1.2
2005 toe/capita 1.2
2006 toe/capita 1.2
2007 toe/capita 1.1
2008 toe/capita 1.2
2009 toe/capita 1.1
2010 toe/capita 1.1
2011 toe/capita 1.1
2012 toe/capita 1.1
2013 toe/capita 1.1

Goals

The trends in final energy consumption must be directed towards meeting the following targets:

  • final energy consumption in 2020 must be below or equal to 5,118 ktoe;
  • a 25% share of renewable energy sources in gross final energy consumption must be achieved by 2020;
  • greenhouse gas emissions in the period 2005–2020 will not increase by more than 4% in sectors not included in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme;
  • 9% reduction of final energy consumption will be achieved by 2016.

General

Final energy consumption in 2014 was 4,607 ktoe, which was 4% below the values in the preceding year. The reduction was largely a consequence of warmer winters, improved efficiency of buildings and the change in the relationship between prices of motor fuels in Slovenia and neighbouring countries, which influenced the reduced use of fuels in transport. The only sector in which energy consumption increased, due to economic growth, was manufacturing and construction. Interestingly, the use of renewable energy sources and waste in this sector increased by as much as 39%, from 81.9 ktoe in 2013 to 113.8 ktoe in 2014.

 

Trends

In the period 1992–2014, final energy consumption increased by 40.5%. Inter-year growth gradually decreased, while energy consumption was reduced towards the end of the period. Final energy consumption was at its highest in 2008 at 5,266 ktoe.

The average annual change in final energy consumption in the period 2010–2014 was -2.0%. In the latest projections of energy consumption used for the preparation of the third energy efficiency action plan, average annual growth in final energy consumption was estimated at 0.3%.

 

Structure of final energy consumption

The highest share of final energy is used in transport (40%), followed by manufacturing and construction (27%). Households, with 23%, occupy third place, while the lowest share is recorded in other use (11%). The structure has changed markedly since 1992. The share of transport increased significantly, along with an increase in the "other use" category, while the shares of manufacturing and construction and households decreased.

 

Transport

In 2014, 106% (934 ktoe) more energy was consumed in the transport sector than in 1992. In 1997, the first consumption peak was reached due to the effects of fuel tourism, after which consumption decreased until 2000 due to measures taken in neighbouring countries. In the period 2000–2008, a second notable growth in energy consumption in transport was recorded, with an average annual growth rate of 6.7%. Growth was particularly intensive in 2007 and 2008, after which a notable decrease was recorded, followed by stabilisation. In 2014, energy consumption in transport was 1.5% higher than in 2010. A high rate of growth in energy consumption in transport up until 2008 was a consequence of increasing motorisation of the population, an increasing number of kilometres per car and economic growth, while after joining the EU, increased transit combined with lower prices of motor fuels in comparison with neighbouring countries was an important generator of the increased consumption of liquid fuels (Božičnik, 2006). Reduced energy consumption in 2009 was largely a consequence of economic prices, while a change in the relationship between prices of motor fuels also contributed. In the years that followed, growth coincided with the lower prices of motor fuels in comparison with neighbouring countries, while decline coincided with higher prices. Until 2008, the number of car kilometres on state roads had been increasing, while since then, they have remained relatively stable.

 

Other use

In the "other use" sector (including services and agriculture), final energy consumption in 2014 was 125% higher than in 1992. This is largely a consequence of the increase in 1997. Since 2003, a decreasing trend in energy consumption has been noted. Energy consumption in this sector is calculated as the difference between total final energy consumption and final energy consumption in the sectors of manufacturing and construction, transport and households, which can result in notable inter-year variations. In 2014, energy consumption decreased by 6.6%, probably due to the warm winter. In 2013, final energy consumption increased by 2.6%, largely due to the increased use of natural gas.

 

Manufacturing and construction

After a period of growth, final energy consumption in manufacturing and construction decreased between 2007 and 2009. After 2009, energy consumption stabilised at the 2002 level, with slight fluctuations. Energy consumption in industry was strongly influenced by the economic crisis, while energy efficiency measures (see indicator EN32 Energy efficiency and energy use in sectors of final energy consumption) were also being intensively implemented. In 2014, energy consumption increased by 3% as a consequence of economic growth. Compared to 1992, energy consumption was 7.5% higher, while compared to 2000, it was 12% lower.

 

Households

After a period of increase after 1998, final energy consumption in households decreased in the period 2004–2007. It increased again in the period 2008–2011, after which it began decreasing again. In 2014, final energy consumption in households decreased by 14.2%, which was largely a consequence of an extremely warm winter. Trends in energy use in households are importantly influenced by the implementation of energy efficiency measures, e.g. insulation facades, roofs, replacement of doors and windows (see indicator EN32 Energy efficiency and energy use in sectors of final energy consumption). Increased energy consumption in 2008 was a consequence of a postponed purchase of liquid fuels from 2007 to 2008 due to growing prices as well as lower temperatures in 2008. In 2009, it was a consequence of the improvement in renewable energy statistics in households, while in 2010, it was caused by a cold winter.

 

Progress towards the goals

In future, final energy consumption will have to be kept under 5,118 ktoe through the implementation of measures under the Energy Efficiency Action Plan and the Renewable Energy Sources Action Plan. If not, the 2020 goal for the RES share will be extremely difficult, if not, impossible, to achieve. The greatest potential for reduction is in the public sector, buildings and transport. In 2014, energy consumption was 10% below the target value.

 

Comparison with the EU

In 2013, final energy consumption per capita in Slovenia was equal to the EU-15 average. Compared to the EU-15, the structure of consumption in Slovenia shows a similar share of manufacturing in final energy consumption, while the share of transport was notably higher, the share of services and agriculture was markedly lower and the share of households was slightly lower.

 

Policy and measures

Policies directed towards the reduction of final energy consumption are jointly called "measures to promote efficient energy use." In Slovenia, these measures are defined in the Energy Efficiency Action Plan for the period 2014–2020 and summarised in the Operational Programme for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions by 2020. In 2008, within the implementation of the Directive on Energy End-use Efficiency and Energy Services, the first of the three energy efficiency action plans for the period until 2016 was adopted, while in 2011, the second action plan was drawn up. Energy savings as a result of the implementation of measures in the period 2008–2016 amounted to 4,273 GWh.

 

 



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