KAZALCI OKOLJA

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Key message
Neutral

In the period 2000–2015, emissions of primary particles smaller than 10 µm (PM10), particles smaller than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) and total suspended particles (TSP) in Slovenia decreased by 14%, 3% and 21%, respectively. The main source of emissions of particulate matter is households, mainly due to using biomass for heating.


This indicator shows the dynamics of emissions of total suspended particles (TSP), primary particles smaller than 10 µm (PM10) and particles smaller than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) in the period 2000–2012 and the structure of particles as regards pollution sources.

In terms of pollution sources, we distinguish between primary and secondary particles. Primary particles come directly from sources on the ground, while secondary particles are a result of various transformations in the polluted atmosphere. Particles may be of natural (pollen, dust, sea salt, smoke from wildfires, meteoric dust, volcanic ash, etc.) or anthropogenic origin (a result of emissions from energy facilities, industry, transport, agriculture, small heating units, etc.). Depending on their source, particles can be of various chemical composition, shape or state of matter.


Charts

Figure ZR15-1: PM emissions, Slovenia, 2000-2015
Sources: 
National database on air emissions, Slovenian Environment Agency (2017)
Show data
particulate matter <2,5 µm (PM2.5)particulate matter 2,5 - 10 µmparticulate matter < 10 µm (PM10)particulate matter 10 µm or more total suspended particles (TSP)
particulate matter <2,5 µm (PM2.5)particulate matter 2,5 - 10 µmparticulate matter < 10 µm (PM10)particulate matter 10 µm or more total suspended particles (TSP)
200012.062.9515.023.3318.34
200112.082.9215.003.2418.24
200211.862.5614.422.9017.31
200312.142.5614.702.9017.61
200412.222.4114.622.7017.32
200512.662.3214.982.6717.65
200612.912.5815.492.9618.45
200712.392.4214.812.8217.62
200812.011.5313.531.8815.41
200913.331.4214.751.8616.61
201013.591.3814.971.8416.82
201113.311.4114.731.8516.58
201213.111.4714.581.8316.41
201313.251.3614.611.7716.38
201411.541.2712.811.6314.45
201511.671.2612.931.6514.57
Figure ZR15-2: Structure of PM emissions, by sector, Slovenia and EU-28, 2015
Sources: 
National database on air emissions, Slovenian Environment Agency (2017)
; Air pollutant emissions data viewer (LRTAP Convention), European Environment Agency (2017)
; Eurostat database, Eurostat (2017)
Show data

Waste

Agriculture

Industrial processes and product use

Fugitive emissions from fuels

Small combustion

Other transport

Road transport

Manufacturing industries and construction

Energy industries

total

Waste

Agriculture

Industrial processes and product use

Fugitive emissions from fuels

Small combustion

Other transport

Road transport

Manufacturing industries and construction

Energy industries

TSP (Slovenia)

100

0.03

6.46

4.18

1.98

63.69

2.08

12.13

6.50

2.95

14.57

0.00

0.94

0.61

0.29

9.28

0.30

1.77

0.95

0.43

PM10 (Slovenia)

100

0.01

3.80

3.59

1.08

68.75

2.28

10.69

6.99

2.81

12.93

0.00

0.49

0.46

0.14

8.89

0.29

1.38

0.90

0.36

PM2.5 (Slovenia)

100

0.01

1.08

2.82

0.19

74.48

2.42

9.13

7.49

2.39

11.67

0.00

0.13

0.33

0.02

8.69

0.28

1.07

0.87

0.28

PM10 (EU28)

100

3.02

15.03

17.29

1.34

41.68

1.49

10.84

5.35

3.96

1923.72

58.16

289.21

332.58

25.70

801.74

28.64

208.55

102.97

76.17

PM2.5 (EU28)

100

3.99

4.06

9.85

0.64

57.78

1.81

11.47

6.54

3.85

1278.25

50.98

51.92

125.89

8.22

738.60

23.16

146.62

83.60

49.25

Figure ZR15-3: Change in TSP emissions, by sector, 2001-2015 [kt]
Sources: 
National database on air emissions, Slovenian Environment Agency (2017)
Show data

Waste

Agriculture

Other transport

Industrial processes and product use

Fugitive emissions from fuels

Small combustion

Road transport

Manufacturing industries and construction

Energy industries

Change in emissions compared to 2000

Total

Waste

Agriculture

Other transport

Industrial processes and product use

Fugitive emissions from fuels

Small combustion

Road transport

Manufacturing industries and construction

Energy industries

Emissions by sector

2001

0.00

-0.03

-0.02

-0.09

-0.06

-0.22

0.03

0.31

-0.03

0

18.24

0.01

1.08

0.46

5.09

0.38

7.75

1.50

1.04

0.94

0

2002

0.01

0.03

-0.02

-1.58

-0.01

-0.11

0.04

0.47

0.14

0

17.31

0.01

1.14

0.45

3.60

0.43

7.86

1.51

1.20

1.11

0

2003

0.01

-0.08

-0.02

-1.30

0.00

0.02

0.10

0.55

-0.02

0

17.61

0.01

1.03

0.45

3.88

0.44

7.99

1.57

1.28

0.95

0

2004

0.00

-0.22

-0.03

-1.72

0.00

0.12

0.23

0.63

-0.05

0

17.32

0.00

0.89

0.44

3.46

0.44

8.09

1.70

1.36

0.92

0

2005

0.00

-0.21

-0.03

-1.70

-0.02

0.23

0.38

0.75

-0.09

0

17.65

0.00

0.90

0.45

3.48

0.41

8.19

1.85

1.48

0.88

0

2006

0.00

-0.19

0.02

-0.49

-0.03

0.30

0.41

0.61

-0.53

0

18.45

0.00

0.92

0.50

4.69

0.41

8.27

1.88

1.34

0.44

0

2007

0.00

-0.10

-0.03

-1.46

-0.03

0.30

0.64

0.42

-0.46

0

17.62

0.00

1.01

0.45

3.72

0.41

8.27

2.11

1.15

0.51

0

2008

0.00

-0.16

-0.03

-4.49

-0.03

0.46

1.01

0.43

-0.12

0

15.41

0.00

0.95

0.45

0.69

0.41

8.42

2.48

1.16

0.85

0

2009

0.00

-0.11

-0.10

-4.57

-0.04

2.66

0.58

0.24

-0.39

0

16.61

0.00

1.00

0.37

0.61

0.40

10.63

2.05

0.97

0.58

0

2010

0.01

-0.16

-0.13

-4.56

-0.03

3.00

0.55

0.26

-0.47

0

16.82

0.01

0.95

0.35

0.62

0.41

10.96

2.02

0.99

0.50

0

2011

0.01

-0.23

-0.16

-4.58

-0.03

2.74

0.64

0.17

-0.33

0

16.58

0.01

0.89

0.32

0.60

0.41

10.70

2.12

0.90

0.64

0

2012

0.01

-0.25

-0.15

-4.46

-0.05

2.56

0.67

0.06

-0.31

0

16.41

0.01

0.86

0.32

0.73

0.38

10.52

2.14

0.79

0.65

0

2013

0.01

-0.23

-0.17

-4.55

-0.09

2.85

0.51

0.13

-0.43

0

16.38

0.01

0.88

0.30

0.63

0.35

10.81

1.99

0.86

0.54

0

2014

0.00

-0.21

-0.16

-4.55

-0.16

1.06

0.38

0.28

-0.53

0

14.45

0.01

0.90

0.31

0.63

0.28

9.02

1.85

1.01

0.43

0

2015

0.00

-0.17

-0.17

-4.57

-0.15

1.31

0.29

0.22

-0.54

0

14.57

0.00

0.94

0.30

0.61

0.29

9.28

1.77

0.95

0.43

0

Figure ZR15-4: Changes in PM10 emissions, by sector, Slovenia 2001-2015 [kt]
Sources: 
National database on air emissions, Slovenian Environment Agency (2017)
Show data

Waste

Agriculture

Other transport

Industrial processes and product use

Fugitive emissions from fuels

Small combustion

Road transport

Manufacturing industries and construction

Energy industries

Change in emissions compared to 2000

Total

Waste

Agriculture

Other transport

Industrial processes and product use

Fugitive emissions from fuels

Small combustion

Road transport

Manufacturing industries and construction

Energy industries

Emissions by sector

2001

0.00

-0.00

-0.02

-0.05

-0.02

-0.21

0.00

0.30

-0.02

0

15.00

0.00

0.53

0.44

3.54

0.19

7.42

1.23

1.00

0.65

0

2002

0.00

0.02

-0.02

-1.05

0.00

-0.10

0.01

0.44

0.09

0

14.42

0.00

0.55

0.44

2.55

0.21

7.53

1.24

1.14

0.76

0

2003

0.00

-0.03

-0.02

-0.86

0.01

0.02

0.06

0.52

-0.02

0

14.70

0.00

0.50

0.44

2.73

0.21

7.65

1.29

1.22

0.65

0

2004

0.00

-0.08

-0.03

-1.15

0.01

0.12

0.17

0.60

-0.04

0

14.62

0.00

0.45

0.43

2.44

0.21

7.75

1.40

1.30

0.63

0

2005

0.00

-0.08

-0.03

-1.15

-0.01

0.23

0.33

0.71

-0.04

0

14.98

0.00

0.45

0.43

2.45

0.20

7.85

1.55

1.41

0.63

0

2006

0.00

-0.08

0.02

-0.34

-0.01

0.29

0.34

0.58

-0.34

0

15.49

0.00

0.45

0.48

3.26

0.20

7.92

1.57

1.28

0.33

0

2007

0.00

-0.04

-0.03

-1.05

-0.01

0.29

0.52

0.39

-0.30

0

14.81

0.00

0.49

0.43

2.55

0.20

7.92

1.74

1.10

0.37

0

2008

0.00

-0.04

-0.03

-3.09

-0.01

0.45

0.82

0.41

0.01

0

13.53

0.00

0.49

0.43

0.51

0.20

8.07

2.05

1.11

0.68

0

2009

0.00

-0.03

-0.10

-3.13

-0.01

2.56

0.45

0.23

-0.22

0

14.75

0.00

0.50

0.36

0.47

0.19

10.18

1.67

0.93

0.45

0

2010

0.00

-0.06

-0.13

-3.12

-0.01

2.87

0.42

0.25

-0.28

0

14.97

0.00

0.47

0.33

0.48

0.20

10.50

1.65

0.95

0.39

0

2011

0.00

-0.08

-0.15

-3.13

-0.01

2.62

0.49

0.16

-0.18

0

14.73

0.00

0.45

0.31

0.46

0.19

10.25

1.71

0.86

0.49

0

2012

0.00

-0.06

-0.15

-3.04

-0.02

2.45

0.50

0.05

-0.16

0

14.58

0.00

0.47

0.31

0.55

0.18

10.08

1.72

0.75

0.51

0

2013

0.00

-0.07

-0.17

-3.11

-0.04

2.73

0.37

0.12

-0.24

0

14.61

0.00

0.46

0.29

0.48

0.17

10.36

1.59

0.82

0.43

0

2014

0.00

-0.05

-0.16

-3.11

-0.07

1.01

0.24

0.26

-0.32

0

12.81

0.00

0.48

0.30

0.48

0.14

8.64

1.46

0.96

0.35

0

2015

0.00

-0.04

-0.17

-3.13

-0.07

1.26

0.16

0.20

-0.31

0

12.93

0.00

0.49

0.29

0.46

0.14

8.89

1.38

0.90

0.36

0

Figure ZR15-5: Changes in emissions of PM2,5, by sectors, 2001-2015 [kt]
Sources: 
National database on air emissions, Slovenian Environment Agency (2017)
Show data

Waste

Agriculture

Other transport

Industrial processes and product use

Fugitive emissions from fuels

Small combustion

Road transport

Manufacturing industries and construction

Energy industries

Change in emissions compared to 2000

Total

Waste

Agriculture

Other transport

Industrial processes and product use

Fugitive emissions from fuels

Small combustion

Road transport

Manufacturing industries and construction

Energy industries

Emissions by sector

2001

0.00

-0.00

-0.02

-0.02

-0.00

-0.20

-0.02

0.29

-0.01

0

12.08

0.00

0.13

0.43

1.96

0.03

7.26

1.01

0.96

0.30

0

2002

0.00

0.00

-0.02

-0.52

-0.00

-0.10

-0.01

0.42

0.03

0

11.86

0.00

0.14

0.42

1.46

0.04

7.37

1.02

1.10

0.33

0

2003

0.00

-0.01

-0.02

-0.42

-0.00

0.02

0.03

0.50

-0.02

0

12.14

0.00

0.13

0.42

1.56

0.04

7.49

1.05

1.18

0.28

0

2004

0.00

-0.01

-0.03

-0.60

-0.00

0.12

0.13

0.58

-0.03

0

12.22

0.00

0.12

0.41

1.38

0.04

7.58

1.15

1.25

0.27

0

2005

0.00

-0.02

-0.03

-0.55

-0.01

0.22

0.28

0.69

0.00

0

12.66

0.00

0.12

0.42

1.43

0.03

7.68

1.31

1.36

0.31

0

2006

0.00

-0.02

0.02

-0.17

-0.01

0.29

0.28

0.56

-0.11

0

12.91

0.00

0.12

0.47

1.81

0.03

7.75

1.31

1.23

0.19

0

2007

0.00

-0.01

-0.02

-0.61

-0.01

0.28

0.42

0.38

-0.10

0

12.39

0.00

0.13

0.42

1.37

0.03

7.75

1.44

1.05

0.20

0

2008

0.00

-0.01

-0.02

-1.66

-0.01

0.43

0.66

0.39

0.16

0

12.01

0.00

0.12

0.42

0.32

0.03

7.90

1.69

1.06

0.46

0

2009

0.00

-0.01

-0.10

-1.66

-0.01

2.50

0.34

0.22

-0.01

0

13.33

0.00

0.13

0.35

0.32

0.03

9.96

1.36

0.89

0.29

0

2010

0.00

-0.01

-0.12

-1.65

-0.00

2.81

0.32

0.24

-0.05

0

13.59

0.00

0.12

0.32

0.33

0.04

10.27

1.34

0.91

0.26

0

2011

0.00

-0.02

-0.15

-1.66

-0.01

2.56

0.35

0.15

0.01

0

13.31

0.00

0.12

0.30

0.32

0.03

10.03

1.38

0.82

0.32

0

2012

0.00

-0.01

-0.14

-1.60

-0.01

2.39

0.36

0.05

0.02

0

13.11

0.00

0.12

0.30

0.38

0.03

9.86

1.38

0.72

0.32

0

2013

0.00

-0.02

-0.16

-1.63

-0.01

2.66

0.24

0.12

-0.01

0

13.25

0.00

0.12

0.28

0.35

0.03

10.13

1.27

0.79

0.29

0

2014

0.00

-0.01

-0.15

-1.64

-0.02

0.98

0.12

0.25

-0.05

0

11.54

0.00

0.12

0.29

0.34

0.02

8.45

1.14

0.93

0.25

0

2015

0.00

-0.01

-0.16

-1.65

-0.02

1.23

0.04

0.20

-0.02

0

11.67

0.00

0.13

0.28

0.33

0.02

8.69

1.07

0.87

0.28

0

Figure ZR15-6: PM10 and PM2,5 emissions, EU-28 countries, 2015 [in kg /capita]
Sources: 
Air pollutant emissions data viewer (LRTAP Convention), European Environment Agency (2017)
Chart note: 

Data for Greece are not available.

Show data

PM10 - PM2.5

PM2.5

PM10

population by countries

PM10 - PM2.5

PM2.5

PM10

Latvia

2.88

8.99

11.87

1968957

5.68

17.70

23.38

Estonia

3.69

6.95

10.64

1315944

4.85

9.15

14.01

Lithuania

2.48

6.18

8.67

2888558

7.17

17.86

25.03

Romania

1.96

5.68

7.64

19760314

38.82

112.17

150.99

Hungary

1.69

5.46

7.15

9830485

16.60

53.72

70.32

Bulgaria

2.96

4.03

6.99

7153784

21.21

28.81

50.02

Slovakia

1.33

5.54

6.87

5426252

7.20

30.08

37.28

Croatia

1.58

4.78

6.36

4190669

6.61

20.03

26.64

Slovenia

0.61

5.65

6.26

2064188

1.26

11.67

12.93

Finland

1.85

4.01

5.86

5487308

10.16

21.98

32.15

Poland

2.54

3.28

5.82

37967209

96.55

124.56

221.12

Portugal

1.19

4.45

5.64

10341330

12.34

46.01

58.35

Denmark

1.83

3.48

5.32

5707251

10.45

19.89

30.34

Ireland

2.12

2.94

5.06

4724720

9.99

13.91

23.90

France

1.52

2.47

3.98

66759950

101.17

164.67

265.84

Sweden

1.93

1.95

3.88

9851017

18.99

19.23

38.22

EU28

1.27

2.51

3.78

510284430

646.18

1282.81

1928.98

Spain

0.94

2.68

3.62

46445828

43.65

124.51

168.16

Austria

1.69

1.91

3.60

8690076

14.70

16.62

31.32

Luxembourg

0.08

3.42

3.51

576249

0.05

1.97

2.02

Czech Republic

1.15

2.19

3.33

10553843

12.10

23.08

35.18

Belgium

0.93

2.39

3.32

11311117

10.46

27.05

37.51

Italy

0.31

2.63

2.95

60665551

19.10

159.80

178.90

Germany

1.48

1.21

2.69

82175684

121.87

99.48

221.35

United Kingdom

0.62

1.60

2.23

65382556

40.71

104.77

145.48

Cyprus

0.85

1.19

2.04

848319

0.72

1.01

1.73

Netherlands

0.80

0.76

1.56

16979120

13.63

12.82

26.45

Malta

0.32

0.55

0.87

434403

0.14

0.24

0.38


Goals

Quantitative goals for emissions of primary PM10 particles are not specified in the legislation. However, the revised Protocol to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground-level Ozone (Gothenburg Protocol) to the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP) specifies a 25% reduction of emissions of primary PM2,5 particles by 2020 compared to emissions in 2005.


In 2012, emissions of total suspended particles (TSP) amounted to 24 kt, which was 1.5% less than in 2000. Emissions of primary particles smaller than 10 µm (PM10) increased by 1.5% in the period 2000–2012. In 2012, they represented 82% of emissions of total suspended particles (20 kt). In the same period, emissions of primary particles smaller than 2.5 µm (PM2,5) increased by 15%. Emissions of PM2,5 particles represented 70% of emissions of total suspended particles (17 kt). Particles smaller than 2.5 µm represent as much as 85% of emissions of particles smaller than 10 µm. In the period 2000–2012, emissions of particles sized between 2.5 µm and 10 µm decreased by 41%. In 2012, PM2,5 emissions were 9% higher than in 2005.

In the period 2000–2012, the greatest decrease in emissions of particulate matter (TSP, PM10, PM2,5) was recorded in industrial processes, electricity and heat generation and the use of solvents. In the same period, the greatest increase in emissions of particulate matter was recorded in transport and the use of fuels in households and the commercial sector. Increased emissions of particulate matter from households were partially a result of favourable prices of firewood compared to other energy sources used for heating.

The main source of particulate matter is combustion of fuels in households, largely due to the use of firewood in inefficient, old boilers using solid fuels or in other devices in which combustion of wood biomass is less than optimal. The share of this source increases proportionately with the decreasing size of particles, which means that PM2,5 particles prevail in emissions from wood biomass combustion.

The main source of total suspended particles is the use of fuels in households and the commercial sector (60%), followed by agriculture (22%) and transport (9%). The situation is similar as regards PM10 particles, for which the use of fuels in households and the commercial sector contribute 70% to total emissions of primary particles smaller than 10 µm, while agriculture contributes 12% and transport 9%. As regards PM2,5 particles, the most important source is small heating units that contribute 81% to the total emissions of primary particles smaller than 2.5 µm, while transport contributes 8%.

With 9.7 kg of primary PM10 particles per capita in 2011, Slovenia was ranked the third among EU-28 countries. The highest emissions per capita in 2011 were recorded in Estonia (31.6 kg/capita), while the lowest emissions were recorded in the Netherlands (1.7 kg/capita).

In order to reduce PM10 emissions in Slovenia, the Operational programme for the protection of ambient air against pollution caused by PM10sets out the following measures:

  • reduction of emissions from heating devices at the national, regional and local levels;
  • reduction of emissions from road transport at the national, regional and local levels
  • reduction of emissions from industrial sources;
  • reduction of emissions from construction operations.

Measures to reduce emissions of primary and secondary PM10 particles in ambient air include improvement of energy efficiency and combustion processes, replacement of solid fossil fuels with natural gas and renewable energy sources, introduction of stricter emissions standards for motor vehicles and consistent implementation of environmental legislation.

Primary PM10 particles are solid particles with a diameter of 10 μm or less that are directly emitted into the atmosphere (PM10). Secondary PM10 particles, or precursors of PM10 particles, include NOx, SOx and NH3, which are transformed into solid particles with a diameter of 10 μm or less as a result of physical-chemical reactions.

Inhaling of particles may cause more frequent and more severe respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, which increases the possibility of early death. Recently, most research is directed into studying the impact of fine particles on human health. Smaller particles pose a greater hazard to human health as they penetrate deeper into the respiratory system. Particles larger than 10 μm stay in the upper part of the respiratory tract (nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses), while particles smaller than 10 μm travel to the lower part. Particles smaller than 2.5 μm can penetrate deep into the lungs.



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