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In 2012, the share of electricity generated from renewable sources in gross electricity consumption was 29.5%, which was 4.1 percentage points below the target value set for 2010. The share increased in comparison to the previous year. This is largely a consequence of higher generation of electricity from renewable sources, particularly due to higher river discharges, as gross electricity consumption was almost the same as a year earlier. In 2012, electricity generation from hydropower represented 90% of total electricity generated from RES, while its share has been in gradual decline. Taking into consideration normalisation of hydroelectric power plants, their share in total electricity generated was 31.6% in 2012, which is 7.7 percentage points below the indicative objective for 2020.


This indicator shows the production of electricity from wind, solar, geothermal and hydroelectric energy as well as from biomass. Electricity production from biomass includes production from wood and wood waste, renewable waste (digestate, straw, etc.), municipal solid waste, biogas (landfill gas, gas from wastewater treatment plants, other biogases) and liquid biofuels.

 


Charts

Figure EN19-1: Trends of the index of gross electricity consumption, electricity production from RES, electricity share from RES and objective of 2010 with regard to the share in 2000
Sources: 

Jožef Stefan Institute, 2009; Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, 2009.

Show data
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Renewable electricity production GWh 3904.7 3864.9 3414.4 3079.6 4217.9 3574.7 3701.3 3377.3 4306.9 4905.2
Gross electricity consumption GWh 12303 12695 13465 13986 14516 14791.7 15159.2 15271.2 14798.4 13341.1
Share of renewable electricity % 31.7 30.4 25.4 22 29.1 24.2 24.4 22.1 29.1 36.8
Share of renewable electricity - target 2010 % 33.6 33.6 33.6 33.6 33.6 33.6 33.6 33.6 33.6 33.6
Distance to target percentage point -1.9 -3.2 -8.2 -11.6 -4.5 -9.4 -9.2 -11.5 -4.5 3.2
Renewable electricity production Index (2000 = 100) 100 99 87.4 78.9 108 91.5 94.8 86.5 110.3 125.6
Gross electricity consumption Index (2000 = 100) 100 103.2 109.4 113.7 118 120.2 123.2 124.1 120.3 108.4
Share of renewable electricity Index (2000 = 100) 100 95.9 79.9 69.4 91.6 76.1 76.9 69.7 91.7 115.8
Target 2010 comparing to 2000 Index (2000 = 100) 105.9 105.9 105.9 105.9 105.9 105.9 105.9 105.9 105.9 105.9
2010 2011 2012
Renewable electricity production GWh 4741.2 3876.7 4322.9
Gross electricity consumption GWh 14157 14650 14631.2
Share of renewable electricity % 33.5 26.5 29.5
Share of renewable electricity - target 2010 % 33.6 33.6 33.6
Distance to target percentage point -0.1 -7.1 -4.1
Renewable electricity production Index (2000 = 100) 121.4 99.3 110.7
Gross electricity consumption Index (2000 = 100) 115.1 119.1 118.9
Share of renewable electricity Index (2000 = 100) 105.5 83.4 93.1
Target 2010 comparing to 2000 Index (2000 = 100) 105.9 105.9 105.9
Figure EN19-2: Electricity production from RES in the period 2000–2008 by sources
Sources: 

Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, 2009.

Show data
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Renewable electricity production GWh 3904.7 3864.9 3414.4 3079.6 4217.9 3574.7 3701.3 3377.3 4306.9 4905.2
Hydropower plants up to 10 MW GWh 340 371 327 266.9 437.5 383.2 425.3 409.7 456.9 378.2
Hydropower plants more than 10 MW GWh 3495 3425 2986 2690.4 3657.6 3077.8 3165.6 2856.3 3561 4334.6
Wood and other solid biomass GWh 57.9 54.1 83.8 98.1 92.5 81.6 75.5 62.8 232.4 119.6
Landfill gas GWh 9 12.2 15.6 22.8 27.7 29.9 27.5 29 31.6 30.7
Sewage treatment plant gas and other biogases GWh 2.8 2.6 2.1 1.4 2.6 2.2 7.2 19.2 24.3 38.2
Solar energy GWh 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.1 0.4 0.7 4
2010 2011 2012
Renewable electricity production GWh 4741.2 3876.7 4322.9
Hydropower plants up to 10 MW GWh 389.1 292.4 296.8
Hydropower plants more than 10 MW GWh 4122.4 3266.9 3596
Wood and other solid biomass GWh 119.5 125.1 114.2
Landfill gas GWh 29.5 28 27.7
Sewage treatment plant gas and other biogases GWh 67.8 98.6 125.4
Solar energy GWh 12.9 65.7 162.8
Figure EN19-3: Expected additional electricity production in new units from RES
Sources: 

Ministry of the Environment and Spatial Planning, 2009.

Show data
Production 2012 (GWh) Production 2012 - AP-RES (GWh) Production 2020 - AP-RES (GWh)
Hydropower plants up to 10 MW 320.2 454 540
Hydropower plants more than 10 MW 3880 3743.7 4580.9
Wood and other solid biomass 114.2 155.8 344.8
Landfill gas 27.7 42.5 47.9
Sewage treatment plant gas and other biogases 125.4 216.9 318.7
Solar energy 162.8 22.4 138.8
Total 4630.3 4638.8 6161
Figure EN19-4: Share in 2007 and target share in 2010 for electricity production from RES in gross electricity consumption for the EU-27
Sources: 

Eurostat, 2009.

Show data
EU-27 EU-25 EU-15 EU-10 - Sweden Austria Portugal Latvia Denmark
Renewable electricity in gross electricity consumption 2010 % 20.5 20.5 21.7 10.7 58.7 55.2 43.6 41.9 38.8
Electricity from HPP in gross el. consum. % 9.4 9.1 9.7 4.3 46.4 46.3 20.9 39.3 0
Electricity from other RES in gross el. consum. 2010 % 11.1 11.4 12 6.3 12.3 9 22.7 2.6 38.8
Target share 2010 % 21 22.1 60 78.1 39 49.3 29
Spain Finland Romania Slovenia Italy Germany (including ex-GDR from 1991) Ireland Slovakia Greece France
Renewable electricity in gross electricity consumption 2010 % 30.2 27.7 27.1 26.2 23.8 20.3 19.4 17 13 12.8
Electricity from HPP in gross el. consum. % 10.7 14.3 24.4 24.1 13.2 2.9 2.5 12.9 6.4 8.9
Electricity from other RES in gross el. consum. 2010 % 19.5 13.4 2.6 2.1 10.7 17.5 16.9 4.2 6.6 4
Target share 2010 % 29.4 31.5 33.6 25 12.5 13.2 31 20.1 21
Estonia Czech Republic Netherlands Bulgaria Lithuania United Kingdom Belgium Poland Hungary Cyprus
Renewable electricity in gross electricity consumption 2010 % 12.6 10.3 10.1 9.8 9.6 9.2 9 8.3 6.4 3.6
Electricity from HPP in gross el. consum. % 0.3 2.8 0 7.3 4.2 1.5 0.2 1.5 0.5 0
Electricity from other RES in gross el. consum. 2010 % 12.3 7.5 10 2.5 5.5 7.7 8.8 6.8 5.8 3.6
Target share 2010 % 5.1 8 9 7 10 6 7.5 3.6 6
Luxembourg (Grand-Duché) Malta
Renewable electricity in gross electricity consumption 2010 % 3 0
Electricity from HPP in gross el. consum. % 0.7 0
Electricity from other RES in gross el. consum. 2010 % 2.2 0
Target share 2010 % 5.7 5
Figure EN19-5: Average annual growth of electricity production by sources and in total as well as average annual growth of gross electricity consumption in the EU-27
Sources: 

Eurostat, 2009.

Show data
Gross consumption Hydro (Pumped exluded) Tide, Wave and Ocean energy Wood and other solid biomass Biogas Solar energy Geothermal energy Wind energy Municipal Waste (Renewable)
Slovenia 2005 GWh 3574.7 3461 0 81.6 32.2 0 0 0 0
Slovenia 2010 GWh 3876.7 3559.2 0 125.1 126.6 65.7 0 0 0
Increase in Slovenia 2005-2010 GWh 301.9 98.3 0 43.6 94.4 65.7 0 0 0
Share in increase - Slovenija % 32.5 0 14.4 31.3 21.7 0 0 0
EU-27 2005 GWh 452947 306071 534 43926 13638 1459 5397 70443 11479
EU-27 2010 GWh 671056 306731 534 78277 36021 46265 5884 179015 18329
Increase in EU-27 2005-2010 GWh 218109 660 0 34351 22383 44806 487 108572 6850
Share in increase - EU-27 % 0.3 0 15.7 10.3 20.5 0.2 49.8 3.1

Goals

  • A 33.6% share of electricity from RES in gross electricity consumption for 2010
  • A 39.3% share of electricity from RES (taking into account normalised production in hydroelectric power plants in 2020) as a sectorial goal in meeting the target of a 25% share of RES in gross final electricity consumption for 2020

 


Using renewable energy sources is the most environmentally friendly way of electricity production as it causes the minimum amount of greenhouse gas emissions and air pollutants. Of course there are differences between the sources with regard to their environmental impacts. The use of wood biomass causes similar NOx emissions as natural gas; if used in older boilers, it causes high emissions of volatile organic compounds and particulate matter. Furthermore, overconsumption of wood biomass may affect biodiversity or industrial sectors that use wood as raw material. Larger hydroelectric power plants have a huge impact on the landscape and represent a disturbance for ecosystems and hydrology. The production of some photovoltaic modules requires the use of heavy metals, etc. Detailed planning of the use of renewable energy sources can reduce these negative impacts to a minimum.

In order for electricity production to become more environmentally friendly, the use of RES in electricity production must increase at a faster rate than the growth of total electricity production. Therefore, it is particularly important to monitor the share of electricity generated from RES within the indicator, as this provides information on whether electricity production is becoming environmentally friendly or not.

Renewable energy sources in Slovenia significantly contribute to electricity production and the coverage of the country’s electricity needs. In 2011, their share in gross electricity consumption amounted to 26.2%. Compared to the preceding year, this share increased by 7 percentage points, while compared to 2000, it decreased by 6 percentage points. In 2010, it was more than 7 percentage points below the 2010 target share. This share is influenced by electricity generation from renewable sources and gross electricity consumption.

In 2011, electricity production from RES amounted to 3,877 GWh. Compared to the preceding year, at 18%, it had decreased considerably. Most renewable electricity in Slovenia is produced by hydroelectric power plants. In 2011, their share in renewable electricity was 91.8%, followed by biogas (3.3%), while the contribution of wood and other solid biomass was 3.2% and the share of solar power was 1.7%. Electricity generation in hydroelectric power plants is subject to high fluctuation from year to year as it depends on hydrological conditions. While the net power of hydroelectric power plants increased by 25% in the period 2000–2011, the number of operating hours at full capacity fluctuated between the lowest value of 3,040 hours in 2003 and the highest value of 4,058 hours in 2000. In 2010 the number of operating hours at full capacity amounted to 4,201 hours, while in 2011 it dropped to 3,317 hours. Electricity production from biogas (including landfill gas, gas from wastewater treatment plants and other gases) increased by 972% in the period 2000–2011. In particular, this growth is a consequence of rapid development of electricity production from other gases, where agriculture prevails, which can be contributed to the effective system of guaranteed purchase prices. In electricity production from wood biomass, the introduction of cogeneration in the Ljubljana combined heat and power plant in 2008 was a significant step forward. In 2008, wood was also used as an additional fuel in the Šoštanj and Trbovlje thermal power plants. Before that year, biomass was only used for electricity generation in heat and power cogeneration units in industry. In 2007, electricity production from solar power was introduced in Slovenia. In 2011, solar power production increased by 411%. Development in this field can also be attributed to the system of guaranteed purchase prices. In 2000, the share of hydropower in renewable electricity production was 98.2%, the share of wood was 1.5% and the rest was biogas.

In 2011, gross electricity consumption was 3.2% higher than a year earlier, reaching almost the same level as in 2008. The highest value in the period 2000–2011 was achieved in 2007 at 15,721 GWh (see indicator EN12 Electricity consumption).

By 2020 electricity production from RES is expected to increase to 6,024 GWh according to the reference scenario of the National energy programme and to 6,344 according to the intensive scenario. In the reference scenario, by far the highest growth is anticipated in electricity production from hydroelectric power, followed by biogas, wind, solar and wood. In the intensive scenario, a higher growth in solar energy, followed by growth in hydroelectric power and minimal growth in wind power is anticipated compared to the reference scenario.

The most important of the measures for the promotion of electricity production from RES is the system of guaranteed purchase prices, which was renewed in 2009. It is regulated by the Regulation on supports for electricity generated from renewable energy sources and the Energy Act. The system operates in the same way as with heat and power cogeneration. Investments in new facilities are also promoted by the Eco Fund through favourable loans.

In 2010, electricity production from renewable energy sources represented 19.9% in the EU-27, which was 1.7% more than in the preceding year. Compared to 2000, the share was 6.3% higher. The EU-25 set its target share for 2010 at 21.0%. In 2010, the share of electricity produced from REC in the EU-25 was 19.7%, which was 1.3% below the target. It was similar in the EU-15, where the share was 20.9% in 2010, while the target share was set at 22.1%. Among the Member States, the 2010 target was met by Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Germany, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Hungary, the Netherlands, Portugal and Spain. Interestingly, none of the countries in which the share of hydroelectric power represents more than 3/4 in renewable electricity production met their 2010 target. In the EU-27, the greatest increase in the period 2005–2010 occurred in electricity generation from wind energy, followed by hydroelectric energy, wood, other biofuels and solar energy. In Slovenia in this period, the greatest increase occurred in electricity generation by hydroelectric power plants, which contributed 90% to the increase in electricity generation from RES.

 

 

 


Data for Slovenia and other countries

Objectives summarised by: Resolucija o Nacionalnem energetskem programu (ReNEP) (Resolution on the National Energy Programme, Official Gazette of the RS, No. 57/04) and proposal of the climate-energy package.
Source database or source:
- Joint questionnaire - EUROSTAT (to 2002) and EUROSTAT > Environment and energy.
- SI-STAT Data Portal > Environment and natural resources > Energy > Renewables and wastes.
- EurObserv'ER.
Data administrator: Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia - Ivo Eržen and EUROSTAT
Data acquisition date for the indicator: 8 December 2009
Methodology and frequency of data collection for the indicator: The data on electricity production were prepared (collected) on an annual basis and published on the web pages of SORS and in printed publications. Furthermore, the data were communicated to the Statistical Office of the European Communities (EUROSTAT). The EUROSTAT/IEA methodology was used for the preparation of data.
Two different sources of information were used – before 2002 the source of information was the EUROSTAT questionnaire, and since 2002 the official statistics of SORS. For the period after 2002, the data on electricity production from renewable energy sources, collected by the Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, were used. The data before 2002 were obtained from the EUROSTAT questionnaire. The data on production for hydroelectric power plants, wood and wood waste and biogas were obtained. The data on electricity production from solar energy were obtained for 2004–2007 in the EurObserv'ER barometers. The data for the EU-27 for the period 2000–2008 were obtained from the EUROSTAT database.
Data processing methodology:
The average annual growth of electricity production was calculated using: [(last year/base year) ^ (1/number of years) –1]*100
For the calculation of the share of electricity from RES, the electricity production from RES is subdivided into the gross domestic electricity consumption, which is calculated as the sum of gross (on generator) domestic electricity production from all fuels, and the net import (import of electricity minus export).
The share of electricity from RES in gross electricity consumption is calculated as a quotient of electricity production from RES (hydropower 5510-100100, wind energy 5520-100100, solar energy 5534-100100, geothermal energy 6000-107002, biomass 6000-107011) and gross electricity consumption (gross electricity production plus import minus export).
Annual growth for the indicator is sometimes indicated in percentage points. A percentage point includes an absolute comparison calculated by the formula (nthis year)–(nlast year)=16 %–15 %=1 pp (for instance: if last year the growth was 15 % and this year 16 %, then this year the growth was higher by 1 percentage point). The difference in growth can also be expressed in a relative comparison using the formula [(nthis year/nlast year)*100]–100=[(16 %/15 %)*100]–100=6.7 %, where the growth is indicated in percentages.
Geographical coverage: The EU-15 is composed of old EU Member States: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom. The EU-10 (NMS-10) includes Member States that joined the EU in 2004 (Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Lithuania, Latvia, Malta, Poland, Slovenia, Slovakia). The EU-25 includes the EU-15 and EU-10. The EU-27 includes the EU-25 and Bulgaria and Romania.
Information concerning data quality:
- Advantages and disadvantages of the indicator: Officially reported data, calculated on the basis on internationally verified methodologies, were used for the calculation of the indicator. The SORS data do not contain all renewable energy sources (solar energy).
- Relevance, accuracy, robustness, uncertainty:
Reliability of the indicator (archival data): The data are reliable.
Uncertainty of the indicator (scenarios/projections): Scenarios and projections are not available.
- Overall assessment (1 = no major comments, 3 = data to be considered with reservation):
Relevance: 1
Accuracy: 2
Completeness over time: 1
Completeness over space: 1

References:
- EEA, 2007. EN30 Renewable Electricity.
- EurObserv'ER, 2008. Barometri za fotovoltaiko (Barometer for photovoltaics).
- HSE, 2008. Website of the Holding Slovenske elektrarne.
- MG, 2007. Letni energetski pregled za leto 2005 (Annual energy review for 2005).
- MESP, 2009. Operativni program zmanjševanja emisij toplogrednih plinov do leta 2012 (Operational programme for limiting greenhouse gas emissions until 2012).
- Uredba o odlaganju odpadkov na odlagališčih (Decree on the landfill of waste, Official Gazette of the RS, No. 32/06, 98/07, 62/08, 53/09).


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