KAZALCI OKOLJA

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Key message
Neutral

One of the main reasons of mortality due to respiratory diseases is chronic pulmonary disease (COPD). The highest mortality rate due to respiratory diseases in Slovenia is in Zasavje and Pomurje regions and the lowest in Central-Slovenian region (2011–2017). Mortality due to respiratory diseases is decreasing; in the period 1999 to 2017 it decreased by 16.2% from 74/100.000 inhabitants to 62/100.000  inhabitants.


This indicator shows mortality due to respiratory diseases, which is subject to various risk factors, including polluted indoor or outdoor air. However, identification of links is not simple. Nutrition, lifestyle and other environmental and social factors can be important. Mortality due to respiratory diseases is an indicator enabling indirect assessment of exposure to adverse environmental health factors.


Charts

Figure ZD18-1: Mortality rate (number of deaths/100.000 residents) due to respiratory diseases, Slovenia, 1999–2017
Sources: 

National Institute of Public health, 2000–2017; Statistical office of the Republic of Slovenia, 2000–2017

Show data

Eastern Slovenia[number of deaths/100.000 residents]

West Slovenia[number of deaths/100.000 residents]

Slovenia[number of deaths/100.000 residents]

1999

88.70

66.60

78.60

2000

77.50

69.60

73.90

2001

69

65

67.20

2002

74.50

65.80

70.50

2003

84.80

71.40

78.60

2004

80.10

64.90

73.11

2005

75.30

63.50

69.91

2006

64.20

58.50

61.60

2007

54.80

49.60

52.40

2008

59.70

52.30

56.20

2009

70.41

59.86

61.84

2010

69.86

53.29

54.61

2011

68.44

52.60

58.32

2012

75.64

65.49

67.40

2013

76.97

59.65

64.83

2014

68.68

50.19

55.88

2015

68.85

59.39

63.30

2016

69.22

55.64

61.33

2017

69.40

53.61

61.90

Figure ZD18-2: Mortality rate (number of deaths/100.000) due to respiratory diseases, Slovenia, by statistical regions, 2008 to 2012, 2013 to 2017
Sources: 

National Institute of Public health, 2000–2017

Show data

Gorenjska [number of deaths/100.000 residents]

Goriška [number of deaths/100.000 residents]

Jugovzhodna Slovenija [number of deaths/100.000 residents]

Koroška [number of deaths/100.000 residents]

Primorsko-notranjska [number of deaths/100.000 residents]

Obalno-kraška [number of deaths/100.000 residents]

Osrednjeslovenska [number of deaths/100.000 residents]

Podravska [number of deaths/100.000 residents]

Pomurska [number of deaths/100.000 residents]

Savinjska [number of deaths/100.000 residents]

Posavska [number of deaths/100.000 residents]

Zasavska [number of deaths/100.000 residents]

Slovenia [number of deaths/100.000 residents]

average 2008-2012

52.89

63.53

62.86

64.77

87.78

69.19

46.84

55.74

73.80

72.95

50.79

85.74

59.67

average 2013-2017

51.22

66.91

60.79

67.37

73.01

64.88

45.09

66.16

83.05

79.61

55.43

77.33

61.47

Figure ZD18-3: Mortality rate due to respiratory diseases, European countries, 2013 and 2014
Sources: 

EUROSTAT, 2017

Show data

Mortality rate

2013

2014

EU

82.50

78.30

Belgium

109.18

95.70

Bolgaria

53.76

58.10

Czech Republic

81.96

73.40

Denmark

127.54

115.70

Germany

76.82

68

Estonia

42.59

43.80

Ireland

131.27

125.90

Greece

95.71

108.10

Spain

91.74

91.70

France

56.45

52

Croatia

57.80

59.70

Italy

60.29

58.30

Ciprus

84.32

86.20

Latvia

43.07

35.90

Lithuania

51.97

42.10

Luxembourg

72.84

63.80

Hungry

81.32

78.60

Malta

113.66

96.60

Netherlands

90.11

74.10

Austria

50.53

46.60

Poland

79.80

69.10

Portugal

123.70

116.70

Romania

75.65

78.40

Slovenia

80.41

66.30

Slovakia

86.05

74.90

Finland

36.45

34.40

Sweden

64.24

58.10

United Kingdom

144.21

130.90

Figure ZD18-4: Expected changes in overall mortality rate and life extension for adults aged 30, selected municipalitied, Slovenia, 2012
Sources: 

Slovenian Environment Agency, 2015

Show data

Number of deaths [number of deaths]

Total mortality - existing pollution []

Reduction of total mortality (%) if PM2,5 pollution was lower than 5 µg/m3 [proportion]

Life extension (in years) if PM2,5 pollution was lower than 5 µg/m3 [years]

Reduction of total mortality (%) if PM2,5 pollution was lower than 10 µg/m3 [proportion]

Life extension (in years) if PM2,5 pollution was lower than 10 µg/m3 [years]

Celje

440

12.90

3

0.30

6.60

0.80

Kranj

415

11.20

2.90

0.30

4.60

0.60

Ljubljana

2255

11.90

2.90

0.40

4.70

0.60

Maribor

1227

15.60

2.90

0.30

5.90

0.70

Murska Sobota

217

15.60

2.80

0.30

5.50

0.60

Nova Gorica

337

14.80

3

0.30

4.20

0.50

Novo mesto

320

13.40

2.80

0.30

5.60

0.60

Hrastnik

102

14.60

12.90

0.40

3.90

0.50

Trbovlje

183

15.10

2.70

0.30

7.10

0.80

Zagorje

190

16.50

2.60

0.30

6.80

0.90

Koper

399

12.50

2.80

0.30

3.80

0.30

Velenje

245

11.90

2.90

0.20

3.30

0.20


Goals

  • Measures to promote efficient energy use and renewable energy sources in heating of buildings (district heating and gas supply; measures in the field of household heating devices; local energy concepts; provision of information and encouragement of the reduction of heat loss in buildings; accurate register of small combustion installations).
  • Measures in the field of transport (Implementation of transport policies in cities – more walking and cycling, increased use of public transport, restrictions on the use of cars; traffic management on state roads and in city areas; measures to reduce pollution from vehicles used in public passenger transport, public utility services and city administration by introducing cleaner vehicles; promotion of electric mobility; measures to reduce from roads).
  • Measures in other fields (introduction of environmental management systems; reduction of fugitive emissions; reduction of dust from landfills, construction sites and road surfaces of corporate entities; expanding green areas in cities; setting up an air quality website; education/raising awareness about air quality).

Other sources and literature

  1. ARSO - Agencija RS za okolje (2015). Kakovost zraka v Sloveniji v letu 2014. Ljubljana, ARSO. Dostopno na: http://www.arso.gov.si/zrak/kakovost%20zraka/poro%C4%8Dila%20in%20publikacije/porocilo_2014.pdf
  2. Clinch JP, Healy JD (2000). Housing standards and excess winter mortality. J Epidemiol Community Health 2000; 54:719-720.
  3. Council Directive 1999/30/EC of 22 April 1999 relating to limit values for sulphur dioxide, nitrogen and oxides of nitrogen, particulate matter and lead in ambient air. Available at http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/SL/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:31999L0030&.... (accessed 7. Oct. 2016).
  4. Directives 2008/50/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 May 2008 on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe. Official Journal of the European Union, Vol. 51, 11 June 2008. Dostopno na: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/SL/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32008L0050&from=EN.
  5. EUROSTAT (2017). Causes of death statistics. Dostopno na: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Causes_of_death_statistics
  6. Hajat S, Armstrong B, Wilkinson P, Busby A, Dolk H (2007). Outdoor air pollution and infant mortality: analysis of daily time-series data in Ten English Cities. J Epidemiol Community Health 61:719- 22.
  7. Hawker JI, Olowokure B, Sufi F, Weinberg J, Gill N, Wilson RC (2003). Social deprivation and hospital admission for respiratory infection: an ecological study. Respiratory Medicine 97 (11): 1219-1224.
  8. Healy JD (2002). Excess winter mortality in Europe: a cross country analysis identifying key risk factors. J Epidemiol Community Health 2003;57:784-789.
  9. NIJZ - Nacionalni inštitut za javno zdravje (2000-2017). Zdravniško poročilo o umrli osebi. Ljubljana, NIJZ.
  10. NIEHS - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (2007). Air pollution and Respiratory diseases.
  11. SURS - Statistični urad Republike Slovenije (2000-2017). Prebivalstvo po statističnih regijah. Ljubljana, 2000-2017.
  12. Stewart L, Saunders P, Kemm J (2008). Children‘s Environment and Health Action Plan (CEHAP): Pilot Environmental Health Indicators ToolkitConsultation Document
  13. United Nations Regional Information Centre for Western Europe (2010). Twenty years of environmental and health in Europe: trends and gaps. Dostopno na: http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0013/103513/544E_FS-ParmaOpening.pdf?ua=1.
  14. Vlada RS (2009). Operativni program varstva zunanjega zraka pred onesnaževanjem s PM10 (Vlada RS; EVA2009-2511-0021), z dne 3. 11. 2009.  Dostopno na: http://www.mop.gov.si/fileadmin/mop.gov.si/pageuploads/zakonodaja/varstvo_okolja/operativni_programi/op_onesnazevanje_pm10.pdf.
  15. WHO – World Health Organization (2006). Air quality guidelines. Global update 2005. Particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide. Dostopno na: http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/78638/E90038.pdf.
  16. Zakon o zbirkah podatkov s področja zdravstvenega varstva. Uradni list RS, št. 65/00, 47/15 in 31/18. 


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