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In Slovenia, the majority of energy consumption in agriculture is gas oil used as a propellant for agricultural machinery (56.2%), followed by energy for the production of mineral nitrogen fertilizers (36.4%) and electric energy (4.4%). Compared to the average of 28 European countries, in 2016 Slovenia has 9.5% more direct energy consumption per hectare of utilized agricultural area and 13.5% less indirect energy use in agriculture.


In agriculture, energy use is expressed by direct use of gas oil and electric energy and by indirect use for the production of mineral fertilizers. The consumption of energy per hectare of utilised agricultural area is also presented and compared with other European countries.


Charts

Figure KM09-1: Structure of energy use in agriculture in 2018
Sources: 

Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, calculations by Agricultural institute of Slovenia, 2019

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Gas oil

Electric energy

Nitrogenous fertilizers

Phosphate fertilizers

Energy use (TJ/year)

2449.84

193.30

1587.63

129.31

Share of energy use (%)

56.20

4.40

36.40

3

Figure KM09-2: Gas oil energy use in agriculture in the period 1992–2018
Sources: 

Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, calculations by Agricultural institute of Slovenia, 2019

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Gas oil [TJ/year]

1992

2853.15

1993

2837.18

1994

2759.29

1995

2694.51

1996

2635.53

1997

2536.97

1998

2519.76

1999

2559.14

2000

2612.36

2001

2615.77

2002

2594.41

2003

2616.21

2004

2517.71

2005

2611.33

2006

2516.68

2007

2558.50

2008

2527.49

2009

2404.67

2010

2477.34

2011

2351.80

2012

2461.94

2013

2458.01

2014

2475.11

2015

2447.61

2016

2451.77

2017

2470.98

2018

2449.84

Figure KM09-3: Electricity consumption in agriculture in the period 2013–2018
Sources: 

Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, calculations by Agricultural institute of Slovenia, 2019

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Electric energy [TJ/year]

2013

191.06

2014

199.35

2015

194.24

2016

191.16

2017

193.69

2018

193.30

Figure KM09-4: Energy use for the production of the used nitrogenous and phosphate fertilizers in the period 1992–2018 (in GJ/ha of utilised agricultural area)
Sources: 

Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, calculations by Agricultural institute of Slovenia, 2019

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Nitrogenous fertilizers [GJ/ha]

Phosphate fertilizers [GJ/ha]

Total [GJ/ha]

1992

4.07

0.39

4.47

1993

3.51

0.44

3.95

1994

3.67

0.50

4.17

1995

3.57

0.47

4.04

1996

3.55

0.47

4.01

1997

4.00

0.50

4.50

1998

4.12

0.54

4.67

1999

4.01

0.56

4.57

2000

3.90

0.51

4.41

2001

3.97

0.46

4.43

2002

3.85

0.44

4.28

2003

3.94

0.43

4.36

2004

3.59

0.42

4.01

2005

3.34

0.37

3.71

2006

3.60

0.37

3.97

2007

3.46

0.36

3.82

2008

2.96

0.34

3.30

2009

3.50

0.23

3.73

2010

3.31

0.29

3.60

2011

3.44

0.28

3.72

2012

3.19

0.26

3.45

2013

3.31

0.26

3.57

2014

3.45

0.27

3.72

2015

3.45

0.28

3.73

2016

3.30

0.27

3.57

2017

3.27

0.27

3.54

2018

3.33

0.27

3.60

Figure KM09-5: Energy use in agriculture by European countries in 2016 (in GJ/ha of utilised agricultural area)
Sources: 

Eurostat, calculations by Agricultural institute of Slovenia, 2019

Show data

Direct energy use [GJ/ha]

Indirect energy use [GJ/ha]

EU-28

5.75

3.87

Belgium

23.79

6.75

Bulgaria

1.73

4.88

Czechia

7.76

6.94

Denmark

10.08

4.46

Germany

0

6.06

Estonia

5.35

2.18

Ireland

1.78

4.15

Greece

2.49

2.43

Spain

4.34

2.57

France

5.76

4.74

Croatia

5.52

2.74

Italy

8.81

2.93

Cyprus

16.20

4.49

Latvia

3.63

2.44

Lithuania

1.49

3.29

Luxembourg

9.26

6.17

Hungary

5.80

4.44

Malta

19.06

3.04

Netherlands

85.02

7.02

Austria

8.13

2.96

Poland

10.28

4.35

Portugal

4.07

1.77

Romania

1.52

1.66

Slovenia

6.29

3.34

Slovakia

3.30

3.97

Finland

13.75

3.66

Sweden

4.58

3.65

United Kingdom

2.71

3.65


Goals

The objectives of the indicator Energy use in agriculture are an integral part of the goals that the state of Slovenia has in the whole field of energy use (energy consumption). These goals include:

  • Increasing energy efficiency by 2020;
  • Increasing energy efficiency by 20% by 2020;
  • Primary energy use in Slovenia in 2020 should not exceed 7,125 Mtoe, (compared to the base year 2012 it should not increase by more than 2%);
  • 25% of renewable energy (RES) in the balance of gross final energy consumption by 2020;
  • Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (existing climate and energy policy objectives);
  • Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from energy use by at least 40% by 2030 from 1990 levels;
  • Reducing greenhouse gas emissions related to energy use by at least 80% by 2050 from 1990 levels.

As part of the “Clean Energy for All Europeans” legislative package (30.11.2016), the European Commission (EC) has drafted a regulation on the governance of the Energy Union and Climate Action, which is a key step forward in the governance of the Energy Union. The regulation, adopted in December 2018, lays down the legislative basis for a new way of managing the Union's energy and drawing up Integrated National Energy and Climate Plans.

Energy consumption and energy efficiency are closely linked. Increased energy efficiency can lead to a significant reduction in energy consumption and thus significantly reduce the environmental pressures associated with energy production and consumption. Therefore, as a member of the EU, Slovenia participates in the preparation of European legal bases, prepares the Energy Concept of Slovenia and a comprehensive National Energy and Climate Plan.

By 31 December 2019, Slovenia will have to prepare a National Energy and Climate Plan covering the period until 2030 (with a view to 2040) and setting targets, policies and measures on the five dimensions of the Energy Union, i.e.: carbonization, energy efficiency, energy security, the internal market and research, innovation and competitiveness).


In the period from 1992 to 2018 in Slovenia the consumption of gas oil in agriculture was the highest in the year 1992. This year was taken as a base year. Looking at the last observed year, fuel consumption in 2018 was 14.1% lower than in 1992.

Indirect energy consumption in agriculture was determined by the energy required for the production of mineral fertilizers. We obtained data for the period from 1992 to 2018. The highest total energy consumption was established for 1998. Otherwise, from this year onwards, a downward trend can be observed. Thus, the indirect energy consumption for 2018 was down by 22.9% compared to 1998. However, if we compare 2018 with the base year 1992, indirect energy consumption in 2018 decreased by 19.5%. Since we do not produce mineral fertilizers in Slovenia, this energy does not affect the national energy balance, but it does indirectly burden the environment with carbon dioxide.

The highest direct energy consumption in 2016 was in the Netherlands due to a large share of greenhouses, while the Slovenian consumption was 9.5% higher compared to the European average. In the case of indirect energy consumption in agriculture, in Slovenia it was 13.5% lower compared to the European average of 28 countries.



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