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The export of waste from Slovenia has been increasing sharply in recent years; since 2009 (after the peak in 2008), the increase has been more than threefold. In 2015, 238 thousand tonnes of waste was exported, mostly to Austria and Hungary. The import of waste has been rather stable. In 2015, 41 thousand tonnes of waste was imported.


This indicator shows the annual quantity of hazardous or non-hazardous waste exported from and imported to Slovenia, for which approval must be obtained. The terms 'export' and 'import' are used for transboundary shipments of waste regardless of whether or not they concern shipments within or outside the European Union.

Transboundary shipping of waste is governed by the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal (Official Gazette of the Republic of Slovenia – International Agreements, Nos. 15/93, 2/00 and 23/04), and Regulation (EC) No. 1013/06 on shipments of waste (OJ L, No. 190/06). The Regulation implements the Basel Convention, the OECD Council Decision on the control of transboundary movements of wastes, and the Lomé Convention.

Import of waste to Slovenia for the purpose of depositing into or onto land is prohibited. This is only allowed when such waste will be safely recovered and disposed of in some other manner and when sufficient technical capacities are available. Export of waste from Slovenia for disposal purposes is only allowed when sufficient technical capacities and facilities required for harmless disposal are not available in the territory of the Republic of Slovenia or when such export is not in conflict with the provisions of Regulation (EC) No. 1013/06.


Charts

Figure OD04-1: The quantity of waste imported to and exported from Slovenia
Sources: 
Transboundary Shipment of Waste Database, Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia (2018)
Show data

import

export

1995

22.12

1.55

1996

21.41

5.53

1997

19.51

2.14

1998

13.36

3.17

1999

18.44

2.96

2000

22.33

4.70

2001

20.50

7.89

2002

20.89

10.73

2003

23.19

14.69

2004

25.60

18.40

2005

23.10

24.90

2006

22.90

39.80

2007

27.40

69.70

2008

22.13

102.66

2009

27.53

76.76

2010

38.01

103.69

2011

41.28

115.48

2012

37.29

178.38

2013

34.31

191.76

2014

37.45

228.25

2015

40.58

237.71

Figure OD04-2: Količine odpadkov izvoženih iz Slovenije glede na državo uvoza
Sources: 
Transboundary Shipment of Waste Database, Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia (2017)
Show data

2007

2007

2008

2008

2009

2009

2010

2010

2011

2011

2012

2012

2013

2013

2014

2014

2015

2015

Austria

29325.70

42.08

35323.11

34.42

22520.58

29.34

27437.14

26.43

51115.00

44.61

87447.07

49.02

90558.18

47.23

113621.16

49.76

109984.70

46.26

Germany

26194.72

37.59

24089.09

23.47

6161.24

8.03

10018.20

9.65

16198.89

14.14

18859.82

10.57

17634.84

9.20

18297.38

8.01

20010.85

8.42

Hungary

13299.21

19.08

18946.08

18.46

23752.07

30.94

28289.23

27.26

37119.78

32.40

56118.99

31.46

67710.47

35.31

85395.82

37.40

94308.73

39.67

Croatia

0

0

16715.71

16.29

14627.40

19.06

28510.52

27.47

1886.20

1.65

0

0

0

0

0

0

2337.10

0.98

Bosnia and Herzegovina

0

0

3390.42

3.30

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Serbia

0

0

2815.69

2.74

2447.01

3.19

3582.06

3.45

1751.80

1.53

1651.42

0.93

0

0

0

0

0

0

Poland

763.12

1.10

1269.28

1.24

7191.52

9.37

5724.88

5.52

5903.52

5.15

5790.43

3.25

6530.53

3.41

9073.93

3.97

10258.53

4.32

France

80.39

0.12

0

0

61.74

0.08

42.62

0.04

1175.00

0.15

43.09

0.02

96.24

0.05

138.50

0.06

0

0

Romania

25.02

0.04

73.59

0.07

0

0

0

0

0

0

185.72

0.10

0

0

0

0

0

0

Italy

0

0

0

0

0

0

187.19

0.18

401.47

0.35

612.06

0.34

312.46

0.16

510.73

0.22

659.58

0.28

Sweden

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

53.61

0.03

0

0

0

0

0

0

Slovakia

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

7619.45

4.27

8843.30

4.61

1286.83

0.56

0

0

Bulgaria

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

70.72

0.04

0

0

0

0

Czechie

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

178.10

0.07

Figure OD04-3: Količine odpadkov uvoženih v Slovenijo glede na državo izvoza
Sources: 
Transboundary Shipment of Waste Database, Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia (2017)
Show data

2007

2007

2008

2008

2009

2009

2010

2010

2011

2011

2012

2012

2013

2013

2014

2014

2015

2015

Hungary

13072.61

47.73

8967.90

40.52

9214.54

33.47

10131.12

26.65

6642.05

16.09

7403.43

19.85

7480.34

21.80

8850.16

23.63

9762.55

24.06

Croatia

7531.01

27.49

5562.53

25.13

4753.92

17.27

6361.73

16.74

5963.68

14.50

5532.08

14.84

5171.80

15.07

4951.75

13.22

3140.69

7.74

Montenegro

0

0

2155.13

9.74

1451.78

5.27

1446.76

3.81

1589.92

3.85

1648.33

4.42

1588.63

4.63

2102.32

5.61

1479.36

3.65

Italy

738.68

2.70

1673.83

7.56

6477.00

23.52

12219.70

32.15

16795.52

40.69

14798.56

39.68

11414.10

33.27

8763.81

23.40

10295.56

25.37

Macedonia

2018.85

7.37

1591.81

7.19

1189.60

4.32

1402.84

3.69

1274.05

3.09

734.80

1.97

0

0

0

0

0

0

Bosnia and Herzegovina

3656.78

13.35

1280.19

5.78

2069.08

7.51

1993.89

5.25

3272.98

7.93

2651.20

7.11

3410.06

9.94

4717.23

12.60

5436.14

13.40

Germany

373.42

1.36

811.76

3.67

2284.94

8.30

1369.79

3.60

1655.71

4.01

1459.83

3.91

1486.36

4.33

1530.94

4.09

1857.57

4.58

Sweden

0

0

91.47

0.41

92.94

0.34

85.46

0.22

94.69

0.32

228.17

0.61

223.53

0.65

114.98

0.31

183.91

0.45

Austria

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

3992.92

9.67

2833.78

7.60

2465.12

7.18

0

0

637.11

1.57

France

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

639.69

1.86

0

0

0

0

Serbia

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

69.64

0.20

4583.04

12.24

5898.86

14.54

Netherlands

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

361.86

1.05

1312.87

3.51

1629.89

4.02

Belgium

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

188

0.50

0

0

Spain

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

330.78

0.88

253.49

0.62

Figure OD04-4: Nadaljnje ravnanje z odpadki uvoženimi in izvoženimi iz Slovenije
Sources: 
Transboundary Shipment of Waste Database, Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia (2017)
Show data

IMPORT - recovery

IMPORT - recovery

IMPORT - disposal

IMPORT - disposal

EXPORT - recovery

EXPORT - recovery

EXPORT - disposal

EXPORT - disposal

2007

27391.35

100

0

0

54164.68

77.72

15523.47

22.28

2008

22134.62

100

0

0

72843.85

70.98

29779.11

29.02

2009

27534.05

100

0

0

61142.59

79.65

15618.97

20.35

2010

38011.43

100

0

0

84946.23

81.84

18845.62

18.16

2011

41281.52

100

0

0

90939.15

79.37

23635.95

20.63

2012

37290.18

100

0

0

148143.97

83.05

30237.69

16.95

2013

34311.13

100

0

0

157659.38

82.22

34097.36

17.78

2014

37445.87

100

0

0

182800.13

80.06

45524.22

19.94

2015

40575.12

100

0

0

200011.73

84.08

37866.65

15.92


Goals

·         To ensure Slovenia’s recovery capacities and capacities for disposal – the principle of self-sufficiency;

·         to properly monitor the shipping of waste, including the certificate on final recovery or disposal of waste;

·         to ensure a high level of environmental protection and protection of human health;

·         to limit the transboundary shipment of waste to a minimum level that still enables environmentally sound waste management;

·         to ensure that waste is recovered and disposed of in an environmentally sound manner and as close as possible to its place of origin and to give resource recovery priority over disposal;

·         to limit generation of hazardous waste to the lowest possible level (in terms of quantity as well as level of harmfulness);

·         to prevent illegal shipments of waste;

·         to ensure final disposal and recovery of hazardous waste, and to use infrastructure within the EU when national facilities are insufficient or non-existent.

 


Control of transboundary transport of waste was largely put in place due to the fact that countries exported their hazardous waste for disposal. In most cases, the cost of export was low compared to waste treatment in the source country, but disposal in the recipient country did not always comply with the principles of protection of human health and the environment. After 1990, transboundary movement of waste gradually became regulated. Regulations require the Member States to become self-sufficient in waste disposal, to recover or dispose of waste as close as possible to the location of its generation and to give priority to recovery over disposal. Also, the Member States are obliged to ensure environmentally friendly waste management and prevent illegal shipments of waste.

The quantity of internationally shipped waste is largely influenced by the differences in recovery and disposal prices, insufficient domestic capacities for waste recovery and the requirements for special recovery technologies. Generally, larger countries have a greater variety of and more technologically advanced facilities for recovery and disposal of waste.

The export of waste from Slovenia has been increasing since 2005. A slight decrease was recorded only in 2009. An increase in the years immediately following 2005 was largely the result of a larger volume of sludge from urban wastewater treatment plants. In 2005, the export of sludge from urban wastewater treatment plants amounted to approximately 1,730 tonnes (7% of the total quantity of exported waste), in 2006 to approximately 14,200 tonnes (36% of the total quantity), and in 2007, approximately 21,600 tonnes (31% of the total quantity). Export of certain other types of waste increased as well, e.g. waste from (mechanical) waste treatment that does not contain hazardous substances, combustible waste, solid waste containing hazardous substances from the treatment of hazardous gases and waste from the deinking of waste paper and board.

In 2013, Slovenia exported 192,000 tonnes of waste. As many as 43% of exported waste belongs to the category of ‘other waste’ (including mixtures of materials) from mechanical waste treatment, while the second largest group is represented by sludge from wastewater treatment plants (19%). Exports also consisted of mixed waste in which at least one type of waste was classified as hazardous (7%), solid waste from waste gas treatment and combustible waste (both 4%). Exported waste was mostly disposed of or recovered in Austria (47%), Hungary (35%) and Germany (9%), and smaller quantities in Slovakia, Poland, Italy, Bulgaria and France. While most exported waste was intended for recovery, 18% (34,097 tonnes) was disposed of (mostly hazardous waste), which is slightly more than the previous year.

The quantity of imported waste remains relatively stable. In 2013, 34,000 tonnes of waste was imported to Slovenia. This was mostly waste lead batteries from Italy, Hungary and Croatia, and partly also from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Germany, Montenegro, France, the Netherlands, Sweden and Serbia to be recovered by the company MPI-Reciklaža d. o. o. (87%). In 2013, combustible waste was also imported (7%) from Austria and sludge containing hazardous substances from physical-chemical treatment (4%) from Italy. All imported waste was recovered in Slovenia.

Over the last decade, the European Union Member States have been facing increased cross-boundary transport of waste. According to the Eurostat data, the quantity of hazardous waste shipped between EU Member States or outside the EU in the period 2001–2012 increased by 66%, from 3,164,000 tonnes in 2001 to 5,249,000 tonnes in 2012. Most waste crossing borders in small-quantity shipments (between 2.5 and 8 kg per capita) is received by Germany, Belgium and France.

The quantity of exported waste intended for disposal increased from 600,000 tonnes in 2001 to 1.4 million tonnes in 2012, while the quantity intended for recovery increased from 2.4 million tonnes to 3.8 million tonnes.

According to an EEA study (2012), a special example of transboundary shipments of waste is electric and electronic equipment exported from the EU to African and Asian countries, where components are to be reused. It is hard to determine whether the equipment is exported as used goods, which is acceptable, or as waste intended for disposal, which is unacceptable. In general, export of waste electric and electronic equipment from the EU to non-members of OECD is prohibited. In order to reuse metals, components are often burned outside, which usually causes the release of fly ash and other toxic substances into the air and greater exposure to the population of such substances, while the contamination of food, soil and surface water becomes more likely as well. Europol has been recording an increase in illegal waste trade within the EU. In some cases, exported waste that is marked for recycling is disposed of illegally. In order to assess the environmental and economic impacts of transboundary shipments of waste, more detailed information would be required on the types of shipped waste, as this is the only way to identify the reasons for shipping. A better overview of legal shipments of waste at the EU level could enable a more successful identification of illegal shipments.

 


The objectives have been taken from the Operational Programme on waste deposition aiming at the reduction of deposited quantities of biodegradable waste (Novelation of March 2008, pages 39 and 40), the National Environmental Action Plan 2005-2012 (Chapter 4.4.1) and the Basel Convention.

The data have been collected on the basis of the legislation in force, i.e. the Basle Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal (Official Gazette of the Republic of Slovenia – International Agreements, Nos. 15/93, 2/00 and 23/04) and the EU legislation. EU Legislation was modified in 2006.

Regulation (EC) No. 259/93 was replaced by Regulation (EC) No. 1013/06 which became effective in mid 2007. Also implemented was Commission Regulation (EC) No. 1418/07 concerning the export for recovery of certain waste listed in Annex III or IIIA to Regulation (EC) No. 1013/06 of the European Parliament and of the Council to certain countries to which the OECD Decision on the control of transboundary movements of wastes does not apply.

Wastes which require approval for import or export are, according to the Act Ratifying the Basle Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal (Official Gazette of the Republic of Slovenia – International Agreements, Nos. 15/93, 2/00 and 23/04) – defined as wastes that belong to any category contained in Annex I to the Basle Convention, unless they do not have any of the characteristics contained in Annex III to the Basle Convention (show no hazardous properties), and – wastes that are not covered under the first paragraph (show no hazardous properties), but are defined as, or are considered to be, hazardous waste by the domestic legislation of the country of export, import or transit. This means that, considering the provisions of the Basle Convention and of Regulation (EC) 1013/2006, these can also be wastes which do not show any hazardous properties, but approval is required for their transboundary movement, for example if a country desires stricter control over deliveries of paper, glass, tyres or similar.

Any waste treatment facility in the country of importation that recovers or disposes of wastes for which it has obtained all the necessary approvals for import, transit or export of waste is obliged to present to the Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia, to the competent body in the country of importation and in the country of transit, and to the supplier of wastes, a certificate of their disposal or recovery no later than within one year from the receipt of the shipment if the waste is subject to final procedures, or within two years from the receipt of shipment if the waste is subject to intermediary procedures of disposal/recovery. The form to be completed shows the date of shipment, delivery and receipt of waste by the provider of disposal or recovery, and the date of actual disposal/recovery of such waste, as well as the quantities of transported, delivered, received and disposed/recovered waste.

The data from transportation papers on the executed disposal/recovery of waste are entered into the database of transboundary shipments of wastes in which all issued approvals are also recorded. These data then constitute the basis for records on actually imported and exported quantities of waste under each issued approval, and for reporting to the Secretariat of the Basle Convention in accordance with its Articles 13 and 16, and to the European Commission in accordance with Article 51 of Regulation (EC) No. 1013/2006. Data on permitted transboundary shipments of waste acquired by such procedure is reliable and accurate.

Other sources and literature:
- EARS, 2008. Reports under the Basle Convention.
- MESP, 2008. Operational Programme on Waste Deposition.
- EEA (ETC/RWM), 2008. Transboundary shipments of waste in the EU (Developments 1995 – 2005 and possible drivers; Technical report 2008/1).
- IMPEL-TFS, 2006. IMPEL-TFS verification - 2 Project report: Is what you see, what you get?


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