KAZALCI OKOLJA

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The total emissions of the pollutants that contribute to acidification and eutrophication decreased by 77% in Slovenia in the period 1990–2015. Emissions of SOx decreased by 97%, NOx by 48% and NH3 by 18%. In 2015, emissions of sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides and ammonia were below the prescribed target values.


This indicator shows emissions of gases that cause acidification and eutrophication and the structure of emissions or particular gases by pollution source in the period 1990–2012. The substances that cause acidification include sulphur oxides (SOx), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and ammonia (NH3). Nitrogen oxides and ammonia contribute to eutrophication as well. The total emissions of substances that cause acidification and eutrophication are expressed as the sum of emissions of the three pollutants multiplied by corresponding acidification factors. The emissions are expressed in tonnes of acidification equivalent.


Charts

Figure ZR09-1: Emissions of substances that cause acidification and eutrophication, Slovenia, 1990-2015
Sources: 
National database on air emissions, Slovenian Environment Agency (2017)
Show data

acidifying substances - target value

NH3 target value

NOx target value

SOx target value

acidifying substances - total

NH3

NOx

SOx

acidifying substances - total

NH3

NOx

SOx

NH3

NOx

SOx

1990

0

0

0

0

100

100

100

100

9.13

1.39

1.47

6.28

23.57

67.46

200.88

1991

0

0

0

0

92.70

94.27

91.25

92.69

8.46

1.31

1.34

5.82

22.21

61.56

186.19

1992

0

0

0

0

95.65

98.84

90.10

96.24

8.73

1.37

1.32

6.04

23.29

60.79

193.32

1993

0

0

0

0

93.95

91.79

92.84

94.69

8.58

1.27

1.36

5.94

21.63

62.63

190.21

1994

0

0

0

0

92.48

91.49

97.60

91.50

8.44

1.27

1.43

5.74

21.56

65.85

183.80

1995

0

0

0

0

71.81

92.21

96.14

61.62

6.56

1.28

1.41

3.87

21.73

64.86

123.77

1996

0

0

0

0

68.96

89.46

99.04

57.40

6.30

1.24

1.45

3.60

21.08

66.82

115.30

1997

0

0

0

0

70.24

90.89

98.14

59.17

6.41

1.26

1.44

3.71

21.42

66.21

118.85

1998

0

0

0

0

65.82

91.35

89.77

54.58

6.01

1.27

1.32

3.43

21.53

60.56

109.64

1999

0

0

0

0

59.41

90.45

80.22

47.69

5.42

1.25

1.18

2.99

21.31

54.12

95.79

2000

0

0

0

0

59.38

94.76

80.59

46.62

5.42

1.31

1.18

2.93

22.33

54.37

93.65

2001

0

0

0

0

49.20

93.92

81.33

31.82

4.49

1.30

1.19

2.00

22.13

54.87

63.91

2002

0

0

0

0

49.84

98.45

81.84

31.64

4.55

1.36

1.20

1.99

23.20

55.21

63.55

2003

0

0

0

0

48.00

93.09

78.86

30.84

4.38

1.29

1.16

1.94

21.94

53.20

61.94

2004

0

0

0

0

43.02

85.62

77.63

25.52

3.93

1.19

1.14

1.60

20.18

52.37

51.26

2005

0

0

0

0

39.71

88.04

76.59

20.42

3.63

1.22

1.12

1.28

20.75

51.67

41.02

2006

0

0

0

0

31.57

88.08

77.82

8.28

2.88

1.22

1.14

0.52

20.76

52.50

16.63

2007

0

0

0

0

31.21

90.33

77.28

7.39

2.85

1.25

1.13

0.46

21.29

52.14

14.85

2008

0

0

0

0

30.63

84.20

83.32

6.50

2.80

1.17

1.22

0.41

19.84

56.21

13.05

2009

0

0

0

0

28.91

89.41

72.43

5.39

2.64

1.24

1.06

0.34

21.07

48.87

10.82

2010

0

0

0

0

27.96

86.32

70.89

5.05

2.55

1.20

1.04

0.32

20.34

47.83

10.14

2011

0

0

0

0

27.94

82.57

70.57

5.92

2.55

1.14

1.04

0.37

19.46

47.61

11.89

2012

0

0

0

0

27.27

82.18

68.97

5.40

2.49

1.14

1.01

0.34

19.37

46.53

10.84

2013

0

0

0

0

26.73

81.00

65.13

5.77

2.44

1.12

0.96

0.36

19.09

43.94

11.59

2014

0

0

0

0

24.65

80.68

58.42

4.39

2.25

1.12

0.86

0.28

19.01

39.41

8.82

2015

0

0

0

0

22.64

81.66

52.11

2.72

2.07

1.13

0.76

0.17

19.24

35.16

5.46

target 2010

Figure ZR09-2: Structure of substances that cause acidification and eutrophication, by substance, Slovenia, 2015
Sources: 
National database on air emissions, Slovenian Environment Agency (2017)
Show data

SOx

NOx

NH3

acidifying substances - total

SOx

NOx

NH3

2015

0.17

0.76

1.13

2.07

8.26

36.98

54.76

Figure ZR09-3: Structure of substances that cause acidification and eutrophication, by sector, Slovenia, 2015
Sources: 
National database on air emissions, Slovenian Environment Agency (2017)
Show data

Waste

Agriculture

Industrial processes and product use

Fugitive emissions from fuels

Small combustion

Other transport

Road transport

Manufacturing industries and construction

Energy industries

total

Waste

Agriculture

Industrial processes and product use

Fugitive emissions from fuels

Small combustion

Other transport

Road transport

Manufacturing industries and construction

Energy industries

total

Waste

Agriculture

Industrial processes and product use

Fugitive emissions from fuels

Small combustion

Other transport

Road transport

Manufacturing industries and construction

Energy industries

total

0.09

51.16

2.15

0.00

6.86

4.51

20.73

6.78

7.72

2.07

0.00

1.06

0.04

0.00

0.14

0.09

0.43

0.14

0.16

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

SOx

0.05

0

22.02

0.00

10.91

0.27

0.61

30.05

36.09

0.17

0.00

0

0.04

0.00

0.02

0.00

0.00

0.05

0.06

5.46

0.00

0

1.20

0.00

0.60

0.01

0.03

1.64

1.97

NOx

0.07

4.42

0.53

0.01

6.31

12.13

53.27

10.44

12.82

0.76

0.00

0.03

0.00

0.00

0.05

0.09

0.41

0.08

0.10

35.16

0.02

1.55

0.19

0.00

2.22

4.26

18.73

3.67

4.51

NH3

0.11

90.44

0.24

0

6.61

0.00

1.79

0.80

0

1.13

0.00

1.02

0.00

0

0.07

0.00

0.02

0.01

0

19.24

0.02

17.40

0.05

0

1.27

0.00

0.34

0.15

0

Figure ZR09-4: Emissions of substances that cause acidification and eutrophication, EU-28 countries, 2015 [in kg/capita]
Sources: 
Centre on Emission Inventories and Projections (CEIP), WebDab search, CEIP (2017)
; Eurostat database, Eurostat (2017)
Chart note: 

Data for Greece are not availible.

Show data

emissions per capita

country population

emissions of acidifying substances

NH3

SOx

NOx

Ireland

1.83

4724720

8.64

6.36

1.73

0.55

Estonia

1.78

1315944

2.35

0.68

0.67

0.99

Luxembourg

1.47

576249

0.85

0.34

0.47

0.04

Poland

1.39

37967209

52.80

15.71

15.52

21.57

Bulgaria

1.30

7153784

9.28

1.98

2.86

4.44

Denmark

1.25

5707251

7.11

4.28

2.49

0.34

Spain

1.21

46445828

56.22

28.01

19.67

8.54

Lithuania

1.20

2888558

3.46

1.70

1.20

0.57

Cyprus

1.19

848319

1.01

0.27

0.33

0.41

Finland

1.13

5487308

6.22

1.87

3.04

1.31

Czech Republic

1.09

10553843

11.53

4.10

3.58

3.85

Slovakia

1.09

5426252

5.89

1.79

1.87

2.23

Latvia

1.02

1968957

2.01

1.10

0.79

0.11

Slovenia

1.00

2064188

2.07

1.13

0.76

0.17

Germany

0.99

82175684

81.47

44.66

25.82

10.99

Romania

0.96

19760314

18.97

9.58

4.64

4.75

EU-28

0.96

510284430

489.58

235.54

167.62

86.42

France

0.94

66759950

62.84

39.91

18.16

4.77

Austria

0.88

8690076

7.64

3.93

3.24

0.47

Belgium

0.84

11311117

9.47

3.85

4.29

1.33

Portugal

0.82

10341330

8.46

3.00

3.91

1.55

Croatia

0.81

4190669

3.38

1.75

1.15

0.47

Hungary

0.81

9830485

7.92

4.49

2.68

0.75

Netherlands

0.79

16979120

13.41

7.51

4.96

0.95

Italy

0.72

60665551

43.57

23.13

16.59

3.85

Sweden

0.71

9851017

6.97

3.55

2.82

0.60

United Kingdom

0.68

65382556

44.57

17.22

19.96

7.38

Malta

0.58

434403

0.25

0.09

0.06

0.10


Goals

To reduce nitrogen oxides to 45,000 tonnes, sulphur dioxide to 27,000 tonnes and ammonia to 20,000 tonnes by 2010, as required by the Protocol to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground-level Ozone (Gothenburg Protocol) to the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP) and Directive 2001/81/EC on national emission ceilings for certain atmospheric pollutants (NEC Directive). National emission ceilings must not be exceeded after 2010. The revised Gothenburg Protocol prescribes the reduction of emissions of nitrogen oxides by 39%, sulphur oxides by 63% and ammonia by 1% by 2020 compared to emissions in 2005.


In 2012, the emissions of gases causing acidification were 74% lower than in 1990, largely due the decrease in sulphur dioxide emissions. Sulphur oxides are formed during the combustion of fuels that contain sulphur. In the observed period, the emissions of sulphur oxides decreased by 95%. The reduction is largely a result of installation of desulphurisation plants at the Šoštanj and Trbovlje thermal power plants, the use of imported low-sulphur coal in the Ljubljana combined heat-and-power Plant, introduction of liquid fuels with a lower sulphur content and the replacement of liquid and solid fuels in industry with natural gas. Recently, emissions from industrial processes have been decreasing which is a consequence of the implementation of the Decree on activities and installations causing large-scale environmental pollution  (IPCC Decree). According to the 2012 data, the largest source of sulphur oxide emissions is the energy supply sector. Electricity and heat generation contributed 64% to total emissions of sulphur oxides at the national level. Total emissions of sulphur oxides in 2012 were 62% below the target value for 2010 onwards. Sulphur oxides represented 14% of the total emissions of gases causing acidification and eutrophication.

In 2012, ammonia represented the largest share of emitted substances causing acidification and eutrophication. The percentage of ammonia in total emissions amounted to 44%. The main source of ammonia is agriculture, which contributes as much as 96% to total ammonia emissions in Slovenia. In 2012, ammonia emissions were 21% lower than in 1990. The reduction in emissions is largely a result of a reduced number of livestock. In 2012, ammonia emissions were 12% below the target value that must not be exceeded from 2010 onwards.

In 2011, the share of nitrogen oxide emissions in total emissions of substances that cause acidification and eutrophication was 42%. According to the 2012 data, the main source of emissions of nitrogen oxides was road transport (53%), followed by energy supply (23%). Compared to 1990, NOx emissions were reduced by 26%,. This was largely due to stricter emission standards for motor vehicles in the transport sector, implementation of measures in thermal power plants and combined heat-and-power plants and replacement of fuels and improved combustion processes in industry. In 2012, the values of nitrogen oxide emissions were 0.8% above the target value for 2010 onwards. Emissions of nitrogen oxides don’t only depend on the content of nitrogen in fuel but are formed primarily after the reaction of nitrogen and oxygen in the air during combustion at high temperatures.

With 1.2 kilograms per capita, Slovenia is slightly above the EU-28 average in terms of substances that cause acidification and eutrophication. Slovenia was ranked 15th in the EU-28 in 2011, when the highest emissions per capita were recorded in Bulgaria (3.0 kg/capita) and the lowest in Sweden (075 kg/capita).

In order to meet the target values, measures were adopted in the field of energy efficiency improvement, replacement of solid fossil fuels with natural gas and renewable energy sources, introduction of stricter emission standards for motor vehicles, consistent implementation of environmental legislation, especially in the field of integrated prevention and control of industrial pollution (use of best available technologies) and promotion of good agricultural practices.

Emissions of substances that cause acidification adversely affect human health and water ecosystems, forests, crops and buildings – largely due to corrosion. The negative effects of acidification depend on the acidifying potential of particular pollutants and properties of particular ecosystems and materials. The highest acidifying effect is attributed to ammonia, which also contributes to the eutrophication effect. Excessive accumulation of nutrients in waters (eutrophication) may reduce and change biodiversity.

NOx emissions also contribute to the formation of ground-level ozone, which is produced in complex photochemical reactions in lower layers of the atmosphere under increased solar radiation during the summer months, causing respiratory diseases.

In addition to acidification and eutrophication, emissions of NOx, SOx and NH3 also cause the formation of dust particles that contribute to increased incidence of respiratory diseases. NOx, SOx and NH3 are secondary solid particles, or precursors to PM10 particles, which are transformed into solid particles with a diameter of 10 μm or smaller as a result of physical-chemical reactions.



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