KAZALCI OKOLJA

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In the period 1990–2015, emissions of total ozone precursors decreased by 54%. Emissions of nitrogen oxides decreased by 48%, carbon monoxide by 66%, non-methane volatile organic compounds by 55% and methane by 18%. The decrease is mainly a consequence of the introduction of more stringent emission standards for motor vehicles. This measure contributed to a significant reduction in emissions of nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide from road transport, which is the main source of ozone precursors. In 2015, emissions of nitrogen oxides and non-methane volatile organic compounds were below the prescribed target values that are not to have been exceeded from 2010 onwards.


This indicator shows the dynamics of emissions of gases causing the formation of ground-level ozone in the period 1990–2015 and the structure of emissions of particular gases by pollution source.

An ozone precursor is a substance that contributes to the formation of ground-level (tropospheric) ozone. Ozone precursors include nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC).

Total emissions of substances causing the formation of ground-level ozone are expressed as the sum of emissions of the four pollutants multiplied by corresponding factors of ground-level ozone formation. Emissions are given in NMVOC equivalents.


Charts

Figure ZR10-1: Emissions of ozone-precursors, 1990-2015
Sources: 

National database on air emissions, Slovenian Environment Agency, 2017

Show data

NMVOC target value

NOx target value

ozone precursors - total

CH4

NMVOC

CO

NOx

ozone precursors - total

CH4

NMVOC

CO

NOx

CH4

NMVOC

CO

NOx

1990

0

0

100

100

100

100

100

191.41

1.38

72.09

35.63

82.30

98.84

72.09

323.95

67.46

1991

0

0

93.30

96.48

93.87

96.75

91.25

178.58

1.34

67.67

34.48

75.10

95.36

67.67

313.43

61.56

1992

0

0

89.55

98.32

90.02

86.95

90.10

171.40

1.36

64.89

30.99

74.16

97.18

64.89

281.69

60.79

1993

0

0

90.86

95.24

88.78

90.33

92.84

173.92

1.32

64.00

32.19

76.41

94.14

64.00

292.64

62.63

1994

0

0

93.20

95.11

90.61

88.22

97.60

178.40

1.32

65.32

31.44

80.33

94.01

65.32

285.77

65.85

1995

0

0

92.20

96.25

89.71

87.96

96.14

176.48

1.33

64.67

31.35

79.13

95.14

64.67

284.96

64.86

1996

0

0

96.03

94.62

94.92

91.39

99.04

183.82

1.31

68.43

32.57

81.52

93.52

68.43

296.07

66.82

1997

0

0

92.05

94.34

89.76

82.51

98.14

176.19

1.31

64.70

29.40

80.78

93.24

64.70

267.30

66.21

1998

0

0

83.28

95.91

82.08

70.24

89.77

159.41

1.33

59.17

25.03

73.89

94.80

59.17

227.53

60.56

1999

0

0

75.85

96.04

76.81

63.02

80.22

145.18

1.33

55.37

22.46

66.03

94.93

55.37

204.16

54.12

2000

0

0

74.49

99.50

74.95

58.51

80.59

142.59

1.38

54.03

20.85

66.33

98.35

54.03

189.55

54.37

2001

0

0

73.57

98.00

72.69

56.44

81.33

140.81

1.36

52.40

20.11

66.94

96.86

52.40

182.84

54.87

2002

0

0

73.40

101.79

72.59

54.47

81.84

140.50

1.41

52.33

19.41

67.36

100.61

52.33

176.44

55.21

2003

0

0

71.03

99.91

70.35

53.19

78.86

135.96

1.38

50.72

18.96

64.91

98.76

50.72

172.32

53.20

2004

0

0

68.59

98.92

67.38

48.99

77.63

131.30

1.37

48.57

17.46

63.90

97.78

48.57

158.70

52.37

2005

0

0

66.71

98.17

64.29

47.55

76.59

127.69

1.36

46.35

16.94

63.04

97.04

46.35

154.03

51.67

2006

0

0

66.47

96.23

63.82

44.44

77.82

127.23

1.33

46.01

15.84

64.05

95.12

46.01

143.96

52.50

2007

0

0

64.67

96.29

60.83

42.06

77.28

123.79

1.33

43.85

14.99

63.61

95.18

43.85

136.27

52.14

2008

0

0

65.68

90.56

57.50

40.52

83.32

125.72

1.25

41.45

14.44

68.58

89.52

41.45

131.27

56.21

2009

0

0

60.86

88.93

56.67

41.50

72.43

116.49

1.23

40.85

14.79

59.62

87.90

40.85

134.43

48.87

2010

0

0

59.37

88.23

54.35

41.77

70.89

113.64

1.22

39.18

14.89

58.35

87.21

39.18

135.32

47.83

2011

0

0

57.87

88.02

51.18

40.90

70.57

110.77

1.22

36.90

14.57

58.08

87.01

36.90

132.48

47.61

2012

0

0

55.96

85.92

48.52

39.77

68.97

107.11

1.19

34.98

14.17

56.77

84.92

34.98

128.84

46.53

2013

0

0

53.43

84.15

46.47

39.30

65.13

102.28

1.16

33.50

14.01

53.61

83.17

33.50

127.32

43.94

2014

0

0

48.49

80.17

43.99

33.44

58.42

92.82

1.11

31.71

11.92

48.08

79.24

31.71

108.33

39.41

2015

0

0

46.13

82.45

44.55

34.10

52.11

88.30

1.14

32.12

12.15

42.89

81.50

32.12

110.48

35.16

target 2010

55.49

66.70

Figure ZR10-2: Structure of ozone precursor emissions, by substances, Slovenia, 2015
Sources: 

National database on air emissions, Slovenian Environment Agency, 2017

Show data

NOx

NMVOC

CO

CH4

ozone precursors - total

NOx

NMVOC

CO

CH4

2015

42.89

12.15

32.12

1.14

92.92

46.16

13.08

34.56

1.23

Figure ZR10-3: Structure of ozone precursor emissions, by sector, Slovenia, 2015
Sources: 
National database on air emissions, Slovenian Environment Agency (2017)
Show data

total

total

Total

Waste

Agriculture

Other transport

Industrial processes and product use

Fugitive emissions from fuels

Small combustion

Road transport

Manufacturing industries and construction

Energy industries

Total

Waste

Agriculture

Other transport

Industrial processes and product use

Fugitive emissions from fuels

Small combustion

Road transport

Manufacturing industries and construction

Energy industries

Total

Waste

Agriculture

Other transport

Industrial processes and product use

Fugitive emissions from fuels

Small combustion

Road transport

Manufacturing industries and construction

Energy industries

ozone precursors

0

88.30

100

0.87

9.49

8.57

12.42

2.28

19.78

32.02

8.07

6.50

88.30

0.77

8.38

7.56

10.97

2.01

17.47

28.27

7.13

5.74

259.25

18.09

54.61

11.09

17.11

12.03

84.82

44.83

10.91

5.74

NOx

48.57

42.89

100

0.07

4.42

12.13

0.53

0.01

6.31

53.27

10.44

12.82

42.89

0.03

1.90

5.20

0.23

0.00

2.71

22.85

4.48

5.50

35.16

0.02

1.55

4.26

0.19

0.00

2.22

18.73

3.67

4.51

NMVOC

36.37

32.12

100

1.52

18.14

5.63

31.06

5.81

21.86

9.01

6.55

0.41

32.12

0.49

5.83

1.81

9.97

1.87

7.02

2.90

2.10

0.13

32.12

0.49

5.83

1.81

9.97

1.87

7.02

2.90

2.10

0.13

CO

13.76

12.15

100

0.00

0

4.54

6.29

0.01

63.01

20.77

4.47

0.91

12.15

0.00

0

0.55

0.76

0.00

7.66

2.52

0.54

0.11

110.48

0.00

0

5.02

6.95

0.02

69.61

22.94

4.93

1.00

CH4

1.29

1.14

100

21.56

57.96

0.00

0

12.44

7.33

0.33

0.25

0.13

1.14

0.25

0.66

0.00

0

0.14

0.08

0.00

0.00

0.00

81.50

17.57

47.24

0.00

0

10.14

5.97

0.27

0.20

0.10

Figure ZR10-4: Emissions of ozone-precursors, EU-28 countries, 2015 [in kg/capita]
Sources: 
EMEP database (CEIP), Eurostat (2017)
; EEA Greenhouse gas data viewer, European Environment Agency (2017)
; EUROSTAT (2017)
Chart note: 

Data for Greece are not availible.

Show data

emissions per capita

population by countries

emissions of ozone precursors

CH4

CO

NMVOC

NOx

CH4

CO

NMVOC

NOx

Luxembourg

67.60

576249

38.95

0.35

2.40

9.74

26.47

24.87

21.83

9.74

21.69

Estonia

57.07

1315944

75.10

0.59

14.09

22.92

37.50

42.37

128.09

22.92

30.74

Finland

54.05

5487308

296.58

2.73

35.70

87.77

170.38

195.02

324.57

87.77

139.65

Latvia

51.51

1968957

101.43

1.06

14.43

41.37

44.57

75.36

131.19

41.37

36.53

Denmark

50.63

5707251

288.96

3.84

35.97

109.48

139.68

273.95

326.99

109.48

114.49

Lithuania

49.26

2888558

142.29

1.89

13.93

59.36

67.12

135.06

126.62

59.36

55.01

Ireland

46.10

4724720

217.82

7.43

12.00

101.34

97.04

530.55

109.13

101.34

79.54

Poland

44.57

37967209

1692.03

26.42

264.15

530.62

870.84

1887.05

2401.35

530.62

713.80

Slovenia

42.78

2064188

88.30

1.14

12.15

32.12

42.89

81.50

110.48

32.12

35.16

Portugal

42.11

10341330

435.49

6.06

29.89

180.29

219.26

432.57

271.74

180.29

179.72

Austria

41.53

8690076

360.89

3.68

62.38

112.89

181.93

263.04

567.13

112.89

149.12

Slovakia

40.96

5426252

222.28

2.44

25.37

89.30

105.18

174.10

230.60

89.30

86.21

Spain

40.70

46445828

1890.14

21.48

180.75

584.00

1103.92

1534.12

1643.22

584.00

904.85

Bulgaria

40.47

7153784

289.50

4.10

31.69

93.14

160.58

292.56

288.09

93.14

131.62

Czech Republic

38.20

10553843

403.13

7.67

55.34

139.36

200.76

547.79

503.06

139.36

164.56

Sweden

38.11

9851017

375.43

2.73

50.70

163.88

158.12

194.91

460.89

163.88

129.61

Belgium

36.11

11311117

408.47

4.52

43.74

119.62

240.59

323.10

397.65

119.62

197.21

EU28

36.07

510284430

18403.51

255.38

2197.83

6543.80

9406.50

18241.56

19980.25

6543.80

7710.24

Croatia

36.05

4190669

151.08

1.92

23.79

60.58

64.78

137.25

216.28

60.58

53.10

Hungary

34.98

9830485

343.86

4.27

50.34

139.00

150.26

305.04

457.65

139.00

123.16

Romania

34.05

19760314

672.87

16.57

82.65

313.14

260.51

1183.70

751.34

313.14

213.53

Germany

34.01

82175684

2795.14

31.15

295.12

1020.18

1448.69

2224.74

2682.92

1020.18

1187.45

Italy

33.90

60665551

2056.28

24.20

259.14

842.07

930.87

1728.61

2355.78

842.07

763.01

United Kingdom

33.13

65382556

2165.91

29.22

180.96

835.36

1120.38

2086.92

1645.13

835.36

918.34

Cyprus

33.09

848319

28.07

0.49

1.55

7.39

18.64

35.07

14.08

7.39

15.28

France

30.02

66759950

2004.18

32.99

329.30

622.63

1019.26

2356.29

2993.68

622.63

835.46

Netherlands

28.90

16979120

490.72

10.64

62.69

139.02

278.37

760.11

569.95

139.02

228.17

Malta

13.05

434403

5.67

0.10

0.03

2.06

3.48

7.17

0.23

2.06

2.85


Goals

To reduce total national emissions of nitrogen oxides to 45,000 tonnes, sulphur dioxide to 27,000 tonnes, NMVOC to 40,000 tonnes and ammonia to 20,000 tonnes by 2010 as required by the Protocol to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground-level Ozone (Gothenburg Protocol) to the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP) and Directive 2001/81/EC on the reduction of national emissions of certain atmospheric pollutants (NEC Directive). National emission ceilings should also not have been exceeded since 2010. The revised Gothenburg Protocol and NEC Directive additionally prescribe the reduction of emissions of nitrogen oxides by 39%, sulphur oxides by 63%, non-methane volatile organic compounds by 23%, ammonia by 1% and PM2.5 particles by 25% by 2020 compared to emissions in 2005.


Emissions of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, methane and non-methane volatile organic compounds contribute to the formation of ground-level ozone. NOx, CO, CH4 and NMVOC enter into complex photochemical reactions in the lower layers of the atmosphere. They are called precursors of tropospheric ozone. Different pollutants have a different potential for the formation of ground-level ozone. In 2015, the most important pollutants contributing to the formation of ozone precursors were nitrogen oxides (49%), followed by carbon monoxide (36%). NMVOC contributed 14%, while the contribution of methane was only 1%.

In the period 1990–2015, emissions of ozone precursors decreased by 54%. The greatest reduction was recorded in emissions of carbon monoxide (66%). Emissions of NMVOC decreased by 55%, nitrogen oxides by 48% and methane by 18%. The greatest reduction of emissions was recorded in the transport sector, largely due to the introduction of stricter emissions standards for motor vehicles. The introduction of catalytic converters for petrol-fuelled vehicles contributed to a considerable decrease in emissions of nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide. The reduced use of solvents contributed to a reduction in NMVOC emissions (lower content of solvents in paints, varnishes, lacquers, etc.), as did the implementation of legislation in the field of storing, decanting and volatility of fuel petrol. Reduced emissions of nitrogen oxides are also a result of measures taken in thermal power plants and combined heat-and-power plants, e.g. modernisation of technologies and installation of flue gas purification systems, replacement of fuels, as well as the improvement of combustion processes in industry. In 2015, emissions of nitrogen oxides were 22% below the target value that was not to have been exceeded from 2010 onwards. Also, emissions of NMVOC were 20% below the prescribed target values.

In 2015, the main source of total emissions of ozone precursors was transport (41%), followed by the use of fuels in households and the services sector (20%). The contribution of other sectors is less significant.

In 2015, the main source of nitrogen oxides was transport (65%). The use of fuels in households and the services sector contributed most to emissions of carbon monoxide (63%). The main source of methane emissions is agriculture (58%). Industrial processes and the use of solvents are the largest source of non-methane volatile organic compounds (31%).

Slovenia is among countries with relatively high emissions of ozone precursors per capita. With 43 kg of emissions of ozone precursors per capita in 2015, Slovenia was ranked 9th among EU-28 countries. The average in the EU-28 was 36 kg per capita. The highest emissions in 2015 were recorded in Luxembourg (68 kg/capita) and the lowest in Malta (13 kg/capita).

In order to achieve the set goals, measures were taken in the field of energy efficiency improvement, adoption of stricter emission standards for motor vehicles, reduction of the content of solvents in paints, cleaning agents and other products and consistent implementation of environmental legislation, especially in the field of integrated prevention of industrial pollution (the use best available technologies) and limitation of pollution from large combustion plants.

Ozone precursors significantly contribute to the formation of ground-level (tropospheric) ozone. As ozone is a strong oxidant, it adversely affects human health and ecosystems. High concentrations of ground-level ozone may have a negative impact on the human respiratory system (lungs in particular), cause damage to leaves, reduce the resistance of plants to diseases and reduce crop production. Ozone may also have a damaging impact on plastics and rubber.



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