KAZALCI OKOLJA

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Data for Slovenia show that number of newly diagnosed cases of melanoma in persons under 55 years of age is increasing. Melanoma is more often diagnosed by women then by men. Most of the melanoma cases are most likely related to acute, occasional and excessive sun exposure, mainly in childhood. Nevertheless there is a 20-40 year time delay between the sun exposure and the occurrence of cancer, the incidence of melanoma in persons under 55 years of age, is a good indicator of the final success of measures taken against excessive exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation in childhood.

Bad

Children in some primary schools and kindergartens in the Municipality of Ljubljana are exposed to road traffic noise. Of 105 kindergartens and 54 elementary schools, the limit value of environmental noise for playgrounds 55dB(A) determined by the WHO was exceeded on all facades at only one kindergarten. In 29 elementary schools and 48 kindergartens, this limit value was exceeded at least on the most exposed facade. In the school year 2013/2014, 11,925 pupils attended those 29 elementary schools and 5,946 children attended the mentioned 48 kindergartens.

Neutral

The estimated average long-term intakes of metals (lead, cadmium and mercury) into the human body through food in the adult population of Slovenia do not exceed the reference points (BMDL) or health-based guideline values (tolerable daily/weekly intakes), and in children lead and cadmium on average, similarly to the EU, may be exceeded.

Neutral

In Slovenia the concentration of dioxins in human milk is low and comparable to those in the neighboring countries. Long-term surveillance will be possible once regular national human biomonitoring is established and assured.

Neutral

Due to high lead content in the environment, the Upper Meža Valley area was declared a brownfield site area in 2007 and underwent special remediation measures with the aim of protecting the health of people, especially children. Data shows that the lead exposure of children in the Upper Meža Valley improved rapidly in the early years of implementing the remediation measures, but no further improvement was observed after 2010. A prevalence study of lead levels in children's blood from the Meža Valley in 2018 even showed higher values compared to a study conducted in 2013.

Neutral

One of the main reasons of mortality due to respiratory diseases is in Slovenia chronic pulmonary disease (COPD). The highest mortality rate due to respiratory diseases in Slovenia is in Savinjska and Zasavska region and the lowest in Central-Slovenian region (2017–2021). Mortality due to respiratory diseases is decreasing; in the period 2017 to 2021 it decreased from 62/100.000 inhabitants to 32/100.000 inhabitants. This can be attributed to the “harvesting effect” of COVID 19.

Good

Foodborne diseases remain an important public health challenge and they are an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. During 2014–2019 Slovenia reported 528 different outbreaks. The most common were the outbreaks with contact transmission where Norovirus was the most common identified agent (201 outbreaks), followed by respiratory disease outbreaks (147) and foodborne disease outbreaks (20). The multi-regional outbreak of monofasic S. Typhimurium was notified in 2019. The outbreak was not linked to any known sources.

Neutral

Daily numbers of deaths increase during heat waves. Excess mortality during heat waves is greatest in the elderly and people with pre-existing illness. eight heat waves occurred in year 2019. The average number of deaths was 53 deaths per day during the period of heat waves and equal 53 deaths per day during the period of non-heat wave days. In 2019, no less or excess deaths than expected occurred during heat waves in total population.

Bad

Approximately 2.5 million people die each year from gastrointestinal communicable diseases (GCD).
GCD, or infectious diarrhea, is the biggest problem in less developed countries, but even in developed countries, one episode of GCD occurs per inhabitant per year (Infectious Diseases, Tomažič, J., Strle, F.).
Similar to other countries, the incidence of GCD in Slovenia is estimated on the basis of received reports of gastrointestinal communicable diseases.

Neutral

Population exposure to allergens has been increasing not only in Slovenia but also worldwide. This phenomenon is influenced by the increase in average air temperature. Higher average air temperature results in a longer growing season and thus the longer presence of allergenic pollen in the air. Particularly noteworthy is to mention the pollen of alder, birch, grasses and ambrosia. The severity of exposure to the allergen pollen of alder, birch, grasses and ambrosia shows large annual fluctuations, with distinct differences between the continental Slovenia and the littoral area.