KAZALCI OKOLJA

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Neutral

Leukemia is the most common children cancer. It represents 25 to 30% of all new diagnosed cancer cases in children younger than 15 years in the world. Causal mechanisms for the occurrence of leukemia in children are poorly known, but it is often referred connection with environmental risk factors.Data from European cancer registries indicate that the incidence rate of childhood leukemia between 1970 and 1999 grew on average by 0.7% per annum in the last twenty years has been 1% per year, mostly in countries with higher economic status (SES).

Bad

Data for Slovenia show that number of newly diagnosed cases of melanoma in persons under 55 years of age is increasing. Melanoma is more often by women then by men. Most of the melanoma cases are most likely related to acute, occasional and excessive sun exposure, mainly in childhood. Nevertheless there is a 20-40 year time delay between the sun exposure and the occurrence of cancer, the incidence of melanoma in persons under 55 years of age, is a good indicator of the final success of measures taken against excessive exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation in childhood.

Bad

Children in some primary schools and kindergartens in the Municipality of Ljubljana are exposed to road traffic noise. Of 105 kindergartens and 54 elementary schools, the limit value of environmental noise for playgrounds 55dB(A) determined by the WHO was exceeded on all facades at only one kindergarten. In 29 elementary schools and 48 kindergartens, this limit value was exceeded at least on the most exposed facade. In the school year 2013/2014, 11,925 pupils attended those 29 elementary schools and 5,946 children attended the mentioned 48 kindergartens.

Neutral

The estimated average dietary intakes of metals (lead, cadmium, mercury) do not exceed the tolerable reference intakes. Metals in selected categories of food very rarely exceeded the limits set by law, but there are some occasional cases and such foods often originate from the more industrial polluted areas. Therefore, it is necessary to adopt regular monitoring programs for metals in foods and the appropriate long-term measures in the case of exceedances.

Neutral

In Slovenia the concentration of dioxins in human milk is low and comparable to those in the neighboring countries. Long-term surveillance will be possible once regular national human biomonitoring is established and assured.

Neutral

Due to high levels of lead in the environment, area of Upper Meža Valley was proclaimed as a brownfield site in 2007 and received special remediation with the aim to protect human health, especially children. The data show that the burden of children with lead improved in the first years of the program, which was not the case after 2010. Prevalence study of blood lead burden of children from Meža Valley conducted in 2018 showed higher values of blood lead, than study conducted in 2013.

Neutral

One of the main reasons of mortality due to respiratory diseases is chronic pulmonary disease (COPD). The highest mortality rate due to respiratory diseases in Slovenia is in Zasavje and Pomurje regions and the lowest in Central-Slovenian region (2011–2017). Mortality due to respiratory diseases is decreasing; in the period 1999 to 2017 it decreased by 16.2% from 74/100.000 inhabitants to 62/100.000  inhabitants.

Good

Foodborne diseases remain an important public health challenge and they are an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide.

During 2013–2017 Slovenia reported 424 different outbreaks. The most common outbreaks were those with contact transmission where Norovirus was the most common cause of confirmed, single-etiology outbreaks accounting for 177 outbreaks, followed by respiratory disease outbreak (94) and foodborne disease outbreaks (25).

Bad

One consequence of heat waves in increased mortality. The most affected people are the elderly and people with chronic diseases. Ten heat waves occurred in year 2017. During the heat waves of 2017, the death toll did not increase, it even slightly decreased. The average number of deaths was 48 deaths per day during the period of heat waves and 49 deaths per day during the period of non-heat wave days. The number and length of heat waves will increase in the future.

Bad

The incidence of intestinal infectious diseases (IID) and foodborne diseases remains high and increased in 2015. The most frequent is gastroenterocolitis of unknown aetiology, followed by viral infections of the gut, which are becoming increasingly important to monitor. Among bacterial infections, Campylobacter infections prevail, followed by infections caused by Salmonella, Clostridium difficile, adenoviruses and pathogenic E.coli. The actual burden of the IID and foodborne diseases can be assessed only through research.


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